Albertine Rift

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The Murchison-Semliki Landscape extends from Murchison Falls National Park at the northern end of Lake Albert to the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve at the southern end of the lake and encompasses all of the connected tropical forest on the escarpment above the lake. About 70% of the natural habitat in this landscape is protected. Key forest areas within the landscape include the Budongo and Bugoma Central Forest Reserves (CFR) together with smaller reserves such as Kagombe, Kitechura, Matiri, Itwara and Wambabya CFRs. Savanna protected areas include Murchison Falls National Park, Kabwoya and Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserves and Kaiso-Tonya Community Conservation Area. Species of conservation concern in this landscape include elephants, chimpanzees, Nile crocodiles, hippopotamuses, Nahan’s francolin, forest raptors such as the crowned eagle, as well as large (lion, hyaena, leopard) and medium-sized (golden cat, side-striped jackals) carnivores.

The total number of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian and plant species recorded from this landscape to date number 2,583, of which 37 species are endemic to the Albertine Rift and 49 species are threatened (CR, EN, VU) under the IUCN Redlist (2010).
 

 Landscape Mammals  Birds  Reptiles Amphibians  Plants
 Endemic species  3 0 1 2 31
 Threatened species  8  4  2  0  35
 Species number  200  684  78  41  1,580

 

Conservation Challenges

This landscape has been under great pressure recently as it has been a settlement area for people from other parts of Uganda as well as refugees from the civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It has been seen as an area where land is still available for settlement.  Coupled with an increasing interest in the development of cash crops in Uganda with farmers increasing the area they farm to be able to include crops such as tobacco, sugar, tea, and cocoa, this has resulted in the conversion of large areas of  forest and bushland to agricultural land over the past 10-15 years. The increasing fragmentation of forest in the landscape is reducing connectivity between forest reserves and will affect those species that do not have viable populations in any single forest reserve.
 
The finding of significant reserves of oil in the rift valley around Lake Albert has also increased threats in the region by encouraging immigration by people with hopes of employment or speculation over land that may need to be purchased by oil companies in future.

 

Conservation Approach

WCS has been active in the region, particularly over the past four years, identifying critical corridors that are required to maintain connectivity within the landscapes for certain ‘landscape species’ (those that require the connectivity to maintain viable populations) and working with other partners to develop a conservation action plan for the landscape, focusing on using carbon financing to provide incentives to local farmers to maintain natural forest on their land. We have compiled biodiversity data throughout the forests in the landscape, focusing on large mammals, birds and plants, but have worked with scientists from Makerere University to undertake surveys of small mammals, amphibians and reptiles in some of the sites. We have also developed a carbon map for the forest of the landscape and have measured forest loss between 1995-2006 and 2006-2010 across the landscape. These studies show that over 8,000 hectares of forest have been cleared annually over the past 15 years because of the increasing demand for agricultural land and the increasing use of cash crops such as tobacco, sugar, tea and cocoa in the region.  A Reduced Emissions from forest Destruction and Degradation (REDD) feasibility analysis has been made for the landscape by WCS (with UNDP/GEF funding through WWF) and we are finalizing a Project Development Document which will enable us to market the carbon from these forests.

WCS has also been leading surveys of chimpanzees, one of the endangered species in this region that require connectivity between the forests if they are to remain viable in the long term. Dr Andy Plumptre, WCS’s Albertine Rift Director, developed a novel census method for chimpanzees in Budongo CFR in the early 1990s and this method, the ‘marked nest count’ has been used to survey chimpanzees in all of the forests of this landscape since 1999. Repeat surveys in 2009/2010 show that chimpanzee numbers have remained stable in Budongo and Bugoma CFRs but have declined in Kagombe CFR.  There are likely to have been major declines outside the forest reserves with the large areas of forest loss in the region (over 450 km2 in the past 15 years which is likely to have contained about 450-500 chimpanzees using an average density for the forests in the region).

 

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Akwetaireho, S., Akuguzibwe, T. and Plumptre, A.J. 2011. Socioeconomic Values of Corridor Forests in the Albertine Rift Forests of the Murchison-Semliki Landscape. Unpublished report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01., JGI and CSWCT.
 
Akwetaireho, S., Nangendo, G. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Assessment of Corridors in the Murchsion-Semliki Landscape. Unpublished Report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01.
 
Amsini, F., Ilambu, O, Liengola, I., Kujirakwinja, D., Hart, J., Grossman, F., and Plumptre, A.J. 2008. The Impact of civil war on the Kahuzi-Biega National Park: Results of surveys between 2000-2008. Unpublished report to ICCN.
 
Babweteera, F., Plumptre, A.J., & Obua, J. 2000. Effect of gap size and age on climber abundance and diversity in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 38, 230-237.
 
Barakabuye, N., Mulindahabi, F., Plumptre, A.J., Kaplin, B., Munanura, I., Ndagijimana, D., and Ndayiziga, O. 2007. Conservation of chimpanzees in the Congo-Nile divide forests of Rwanda and Burundi. Unpublished report to US Fish and Wildlife Service (Grant 98210-6-G095/GA0282.
 
Blomley, T., Namara, A., McNeilage, A., Franks, P., Rainer, H., Donaldson, A., Malpas, R., Olupot, W., Baker, J., Sandbrook, C., Bitariho, R. and Infield, M. 2010. Development and gorillas? Assessing fifteen years of integrated conservation and development in south-western Uganda, Natural Resource Issues No. 23. IIED, London.
 
Brooks, T., Hoffmann, M., Burgess, N., Plumptre, A., Williams, S., Gereau, R.E., Mittermeier, R.A. & Stuart, S. 2004. Eastern Afromontane, pp. 241-242. In: Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Ecoregions. Eds. Mittermeier, R.A., Robles-Gil, P., Hoffmann, M., Pilgrim, J.D., Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, C.G., Lamoreux, J.L. & Fonseca, G. Second Edition. Cemex, Mexico.
 
Brownlow, A.R., Plumptre, A.J., Reynolds, V. and Ward, R. 2001. Sources of variation in the nesting behaviour of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 55, 49-55.
 
Buckland, S.T., Plumptre, A.J., Thomas, L. and Rexstad, E. 2010. Design and analysis of line transect surveys for primates. International Journal of Primatology 31, 833-847.
 
Buckland, S.T., Plumptre, A.J., Thomas, L. and Rexstad, E. 2010. Line transect surveys of primates:can animal-to-observer distance methods work? International Journal of Primatology, 31, 485-499.
 
Bush, G.K., Nampindo, S., Aguti, C. and Plumptre, A.J. 2004. Valuing Uganda’s Forests: A Livelihood and Ecosystems Approach. Unpublished report to National Forest Authority, Uganda.
 
Cordeiro, N.J., Burgess, N.D., Dovie, D.B.K., Kaplin, B., Plumptre, A.J., and Marrs, R. 2007. Conservation in areas of high population density in sub-saharan Africa. Biological Conservation 134, 155-163.
 
Dale, S., Mork, K., Solvang, R. & Plumptre, A.J. 2000. Edge effects on the understorey bird community in a logged forest in Uganda. Conservation Biology 14, 265-276.
 
Davenport, T.R.B., Lodu, E., Howard, P.C and Plumptre, A.J. 2003. Robust Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Otzi Forest Reserve, Northern Uganda. African Primates, 5, 46-48.
 
De Merode, E., Plumptre, A.J., Gray, M., McNeilage, A., Fawcett, K. and Languy, M. 2006. Le statut des grands mammifères dans les savanes et les forêts du Parc National des Virunga. In : Languy, M. and de Merode, E. (eds). Virunga : survie du Premier Parc d’Afrique.  Lannoo, Tielt, Belgique, pp 185-196.

Didier, K. A., Glennon, M.J.,  Novaro, A., Sanderson, E.W., Strindberg, S., Walker, S. and Di Martino, S. (2009). The Landscape Species Approach: spatially-explicit conservation planning applied in the  Adirondacks, USA, and San Guillermo-Laguna Brava, Argentina, Landscapes. Oryx, 43, 476-487.

 
Dranzoa, C., Sande, E., Owiunji, I. & Plumptre, A.J. 1997. A survey of Nahan’s francolin Francolinus nahani in two tropical rainforests of Uganda. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 4, 90-92.
 
Dudley, J. P., Ginsberg, J.R., Plumptre, A.J., Hart, J.A., and Campos, L.C. 2002. Effects of war and civil strife on wildlife and wildlife habitats. Conservation Biology 16, 319-329.
 
Fashing, P.J., Mulindahabi, F., Gakima, J.B., Masozera, M., Munanura, I., Plumptre, A.J. and Nguyen, N. 2007. Activity and ranging patterns of Angolan Black and White Colobus (Colobus angolensis rwenzorii) in Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda: possible costs of large group size. International Journal of Primatology 28, 529-550.
 
Frederick, H., Moyer, D. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Aerial Procedures Manual, version 0.9 (Uganda). Wildlife Conservation Society.

Frederick, H., Moyer, D. Kujirakwinja, D, Shamavu, P. et Plumptre, A.J. (2011). Manuel des Procédures Aériennes v 0.9. Wildlife Conservation Society

Hammill, A., Crawford, A., Craig, R., Malpas, R. and Matthew, R. 2009. Conflict‐sensitive Conservation Practitioner’s Manual. IISD, Manitoba, Canada. 75pp.
 
Hill, C.M., Osborn, F.V. and Plumptre, A.J. 2002. Human-Wildlife Conflict: identifying the problem and possible solutions. Albertine Rift Technical Reports Series. No. 1. 137pp.
 

Johnson, L. 2007. Assessing the Impacts of Energy Developments and Developing Appropriate Mitigation in the Uganda portion of the Albertine Rift. Report to WCS and UWA.

Junker, J.; Blake, S.; Boesch, C.; Campbell, G.;Toit, L. d.; Duvall, C.; Ekobo, A.; Etoga, G.; Galat-Luong, A.; Gamys, J.;Ganas-Swaray, J.; Gatti, S.; Ghiurghi, A.; Granier, N.; Hart, J.; Head, J.;Herbinger, I.; Hicks, T. C.; Huijbregts, B.; Imong, I. S.; Kuempel, N.; Lahm,S.; Lindsell, J.; Maisels, F.; McLennan, M.; Martinez, L.; Morgan, B.; Morgan,D.; Mulindahabi, F.; Mundry, R.; N'Goran, K. P.; Normand, E.; Ntongho, A.;Okon, D. T.; Petre, C.-A.; Plumptre, A.; Rainey, H.; Regnaut, S.; Sanz, C.;Stokes, E.; Tondossama, A.; Tranquilli, S.; Sunderland-Groves, J.; Walsh, P.;Warren, Y.; Williamson, E. A.; Kuehl, H. S., (2012) Recent decline in suitableenvironmental conditions for African great apes. Diversity and Distributions, 18, 1077-1091.

 
Kujirakwinja, D. 2010. The status and conservation of common hippopotamuses in Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Cape Town.
 
Kujirakwinja, D. and Matunguru, J. 2008. Proceedings of the Stakeholders Workshop on the Illegal Timber Trafficking between Uganda and DRC. Transboundary meeting report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.
 
Kujirakwinja, D., Bashonga, G. and Plumptre, A.J. 2008. Etude Socioeconomique de la Zone nord oust du Parc National des Virunga. Région de Lubero-Butembo-Beni. WWF EARPO, Nairobi 50pp.
 
Kujirakwinja, D., Plumptre, A.J., Moyer, D. & Mushenzi, N. 2006. Recensement Aeriens des Grands Mammiferes 2006: Parc National des Virunga. Report to USFWS, and ICCN.
 
Kujirakwinja, D., Shamavu, P., Hammill, A., Crawford, A., Bamba A. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Healing the Rift: Peace building in and around protected areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Albertine Rift. Unpublished Report to USAID.
 
Lanjouw, A., Kayitare, A. and Plumptre, A.J. 2006. Gestion transfrontalière des resources naturelles de la region des Virunga. In : Languy, M. and de Merode, E. (eds). Virunga : survie du Premier Parc d’Afrique. Lannoo, Tielt, Belgique, pp 267-278.
 

Lasch, C., Pintea, L., Traylor-Holzer, K., and Kamenya, S. 2010. Tanzania Chimpanzee Conservation Action Planning Report.  Report to TANAPA by JGI.

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Leal, M., Akwetaireho, S., Nangendo, G. and Plumptre, A.J. 2011. Murchison-Semliki Landscape: Feasibility study for REDD.  Unpublished report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01., JGI and CSWCT.
 
McNeilage, A., Plumptre, A.J., Brock-Doyle, A. & Vedder, A. 2001. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park Uganda: gorilla census 1997. Oryx 35, 39-47.
 
McNeilage, A., Plumptre, A.J., Brock-Doyle, A. and Vedder, A. 1998. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda Gorilla and Large Mammal Census, 1997. WCS Working Paper, 14. 52pp.
 
Moyer, D., Plumptre, A.J., Pintea, L., Hernandez-Aguilar, A., Moore, J., Stewart, F., Davenport, T.R.B., Piel, A., Kamenya S., Mugabe, H., Mpunga, N. and Mwangoka, M. 2006. Surveys of Chimpanzees and other Biodiversity in Western Tanzania. Unpublished Report to United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 65pp.
 
 
Mwedde, G. 2009. Report of the Lake Edward Fisheries Stakeholders’ Workshop. Transboundary meeting report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.
 
 
Nampindo, S., Picton-Phillips, G., and Plumptre, A.J. 2005. The Impact of Conflict in Northern Uganda on the Environment and Natural Resource Management. Unpublished report to USAID.
 
Nampindo, S., Plumptre, A,J, and Victurine, R. 2006. Increasing the Functionality of the Kyambura-Kasyoha-Kitomi Corridor and Mpanga Falls Area in the Greater Virunga Landscape: Management Options and Cost Implications. Unpublished report to WCS and Conservation International.
 
Nampindo, S., Ujhazy, J and Plumptre, A.J. 2011. Public-Private Sector Financing Mechanisms to Support Sustainable Management of Forest Corridors in the Murchison-Semliki Landscape. Unpublished report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01.
 
Nangendo, G., Plumptre, A.J., and Akwetaireho, S. 2010. Identifying Potential Corridors for Conservation in the Murchison-Semliki Landscape. Unpublished Report to the UNDP/GEF Conservation of Biodiversity in the Albertine Rift Forests of Uganda Project.
 
Nchanji, A. C. and Plumptre, A.J. 2001. Elephant dung decay rates in Cameroon: problems for census methods. African Journal of Ecology 39, 24-32.
 
Nchanji, A.C. and Plumptre, A.J. 2003. Seed germination and early seedling establishment of some elephant-dispersed species in Banyang-mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, south-western Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19, 229-237.
 
Newton-Fisher, N.E., Reynolds, V. & Plumptre, A.J. 2000. Food supply and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) party size in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 21, 613-628.
 
Oates, J.F., Tutin, C.E.G., Humle, T., Wilson, M.L., Baillie, J.E.M., Balmforth, Z., Blom, A., Boesch, C., Cox, D., Davenport, T., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Duvall, C., Ellis, C.M., Farmer, K.H., Gatti, S., Greengrass, E., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, C., Hunt, K.D., Kamenya, S., Maisels, F., Mitani, J.C., Moore, J., Morgan, B.J., Morgan, D.B., Nakamura, M., Nixon, S., Plumptre, A.J., Reynolds, V., Stokes, E.J. & Walsh, P.D. 2007. Pan troglodytes. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org.http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/15933/summ
 
 
Olupot, W. and Plumptre, A.J. 2008. The use of research: how science in Uganda’s national parks has been applied.15-26 In: Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Long- term Research. Eds. R. Wrangham and E. Ross. Cambridge University Press.
 
Olupot, W. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Conservation Research in Uganda’s Forests:a review of Site History, Research and Use of Research in Uganda’s Forest Parks and Budongo Forest Reserve. Nova Science Publishers, New York.
 
Olupot, W., Parry, L., Gunness, M. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Conservation Research in Uganda’s Savannas: A Review of Park History, Applied Research and Application of Research to Park Management. Nova Science Publishers, New York.
 
Olupot, W., McNeilage, A.J. and Plumptre, A.J. 2009. An analysis of socioeconomics of bushmeat hunting at major hunting sites in Uganda. WCS Working Paper 28. 95pp.
 
Olupot, W., Mugabe, H., and Plumptre, A.J. 2009. Species conservation on human-dominated landscapes: the case of crowned crane breeding and distribution outside protected areas in Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 48, 119-125.
 
Owiunji, I. 2007. Report on Sensitization Workshop on Control of Illegal Wildlife Trade in the Geater Virunga Landscape. Transboundary meeting report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.
 
Owiunji, I. & Plumptre, A.J. 1998. Bird communities in logged and unlogged compartments of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management 108, 115-126.
 
Owiunji, I. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. The importance of cloud forest sites in the conservation of endemic and threatened species of the Albertine Rift. In: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management. Eds. Bruijnzeel, L.A., Scatena, F.N. and Hamilton, L.S. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 
Owiunji, I., Guma, N. and Plumptre, A.J. 2005. Report on Transboundary Law Enforcement Stakeholders Meeting. Transboundary meeting report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.
 
Owiunji, I., Nkuutu, D., Kujirakwinja D., Liengola, I., Plumptre, A.J., Nsanzurwimo, A., Fawcett, K., Gray, M., and McNeilage, A. 2005. Biodiversity survey of the Virunga Volcanoes. Unpublished Report by WCS. www.albertinerift.org
 
Picton-Phillipps, G. and Seimon, A. 2009. Potential Climate Change Impacts in Conservation Landscapes of the Albertine Rift. White Paper for MacArthur Foundation.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1991. Plant-herbivore dynamics in the Birungas. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1993. The effects of trampling damage by herbivores on the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology 32, 115-129.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1995. The chemical composition of montane plants and its influence on the diet of the large mammalian herbivores in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. Journal of Zoology 235, 323-337.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1995. The importance of "seed trees" for the natural regeneration of selectively logged tropical forest. Commonwealth Forestry Review 74, 253-258.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1996. Changes following 60 years of selective timber harvesting in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management 89, 101-113.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1996. Modelling the impact of large herbivores on the food supply of the mountain gorilla and implications for management. Biological Conservation 75, 147-155.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1997. Shifting cultivation along the trans-african highway and its impact on the understorey bird comunity in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Bird Conservation International 7, 317-329.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2000. Monitoring mammal populations with line transect techniques in African forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 37, 356-368.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2012. The Ecological Impact of Long-term Changes in Africa’s Rift Valley. Nova Science Publishers, New York. 308pp.
 
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Plumptre, A. J., Mugume, S., Cox, D., Bergl, R. & Rothen, L. 2000. Chimpanzee and other Large Mammals survey of Bugoma Forest Reserve and the Kagombe-Matiri Forest Reserve Complex. Report to WCS, on surveys in western Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Bizumuremyi, J.B. 1996. Ungulates and hunting in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. The effects of the Rwandan civil war on ungulate populations and the socioeconomics of poaching. Report to the Wildlife Conservation Society.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Grieser-Johns, A.D. 2001. Changes in Primate Communities following Logging Disturbance. pp. 71-92 In: The cutting edge: conserving Wildlife in logged Tropical Forests. Eds: R.A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, and J.G. Robinson. Columbia University Press, New York.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Harris, S. 1995. Estimating the biomass of large mammalian herbivores in a tropical montane forest: a method of faecal counting that avoids assuming a "steady state" assumption. Journal of Applied Ecology 32, 111-120.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Owiunji, I. 1997. Puvel's Illadopsis Illadopsis puveli in Budongo Forest: a new record for East Africa. Scopus 19, 114-116.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Reynolds, V. 1997. Nesting behavior of chimpanzees:implications for censuses. International Journal of Primatology 18, 475-485.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Reynolds, V. 1994. The impact of selective logging on the primate populations in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Journal of Applied Ecology 31, 631-641.
 
Plumptre, A.J. (2011) Strategic Action Plan for Large Carnivore Conservation in Uganda: 2010-2020. Unpublished Plan for Uganda Wildlife Authority.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2001. Establishing Ecological Monitoring Programs: What, where and how to monitor, In: Congo Basin Information Series: Taking action to manage and conserve forest resources in the Congo Basin. Biodiversity Support Programme/CARPE, Washington DC.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2001. The effects of habitat change due to selective logging on the fauna of forests in Africa. In: African Rain Forest Ecology and Conservation. Eds. W. Weber, LJ.T.. White, A. Vedder, & L. Naughton-treves. pp 463-479. Yale University Press, New Haven.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2002. The Extent and Status of Forests in the Ugandan Albertine Rift. Report to UNDP/GEF PDFb process, Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2003. Lessons learned from on-the-ground conservation in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 16, 71-79.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2004. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Albertine Rift and the Importance of Transboundary Collaboration to Preserve Landscapes. Pp. 233-238. In: Managing Mountain Protected Areas: Challenges and Responses for the 21st Century. Eds: D. Harmon and G. L. Worboys. Andromeda Editrice, Italy.
 

Plumptre, A.J. 2006. The Diets, Preferences and Overlap of the Primate Community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Pp. 345-371 In: Primates of Western Uganda. Eds. N.E. Newton-Fisher, H. Notman, J.D.Paterson and V.Reynolds. Springer, New York.

Plumptre, A.J.  (2012). The Ecological Impact of Long-term Changes in Africa’s Rift Valley. Nova Science Publishers, New York. 308pp.

 

Plumptre, A.J. and Cox, D. 2005. Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda. Primates 47: 65-73
 
Plumptre, A.J. and Roberts, C. 2006. Attractions of Queen Elizabeth National Park: Perceptions about development of a golf course. Unpublished report for UWA.
 
Plumptre, A.J. and Williamson, E.A. 2001. Conservation-oriented Research in the Virunga Region. pp. 361-389. In: Mountain Gorillas: Three Decades of Research at Karisoke. Eds: M.M. Robbins, P.Sicotte & K.J. Stewart. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Bamba, A., and Shamavu, P. 2011. Creating the Misotshi-Kabogo Protected Area In Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Unpublished Report to ICCN and USFWS: Project 98210 – 8– G531.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Rwetsiba. A., Wanyama, F., Nangendo, G., Fuller, R and Possingham, H. 2012. The Distribution of Landscape Species in the Greater Virunga Landscape: Conservation implications. Unpublished report to WCS.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Mutungire, N., Mugabe, H., Kirunda, B., Bogezi, C., Kityo, R., Behangana, M., and Turyeigurira, J. 2010. Biodiversity Surveys of Kabwoya Wildlife Reserve and Kaiso-Tonya Community Wildlife Area. Unpublished Report to USAID WILD Project.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Akwetaireho, S., Hanni, D.C., Leal, M., Mutungire, M., Kyamanywa, J., Tumuhamye, D., Johnson, A., and Isoke, S. 2010. Biodiversity surveys of Bugoma Forest Reserve, smaller Central Forest Reserves, and corridor forests south of Bugoma. Unpublished Report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Akwetaireho, S., Leal, M., Mutungire, M., Kyamanywa, J., Tumuhamye, D., Bamutura, B., Johnson, A., and Mukundane, R. 2011. Biodiversity surveys of the corridor forests east of Bugoma Forest Reserve up to Budongo Forest Reserve. Unpublished Report to Jane Goodall Institute and Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Amsini, F., Kujirakwinja, D., Hart, J., Nyembo, B., Vyahavwa, C., Bujo, F., Masanga, A., Matunguru, J., Mwinyihali, R. and Tshombe, R. 2009. Itombwe Massif Conservation Project: Delimitation and zoning of the Itombwe Natural Reserve for protection of great apes. Unpublished Report to US Fish and Wildlife Service. Project 98210 – 7– G293.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Arnold, M. and Nkuutu, D. 2003. Conservation Action Plan for Uganda’s Chimpanzees: 2003-2008. Unpublished National Action Plan, Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Bamba, A., Shamavu, P., Kujirakwinja, D., Matunguru, J. 2009. Socioeconomic surveys around the Misotshi-Kabogo forest in south eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Unpublished Report to USFWS, USAID and WWF.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Behangana, M., Davenport, T., Kahindo, C., Kityo, R., Ndomba, E., Nkuutu, D., Owiunji, I., Ssegawa, P., and Eilu, G. 2003. The Biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Albertine Rift Technical Reports No. 3, pp105. 
 
Plumptre, A.J., Bizumuremyi, J-B., Uwimana, F. & Ndaruhebeye, J-D. 1997. The effects of the Rwandan civil war on poaching of ungulates in the Parc National des Volcans. Oryx 31, 265-273.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Cox, D. and Mugume, S. 2003. The status of Chimpanzees in Uganda. Albertine Rift Technical Reports Series No. 2, 70pp.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Davenport, T.R.B., Behangana, M., Kityo, R., Eilu, G., Ssegawa, P., Ewango, C., and Kahindo, C. 2004. Albertine Rift, pp 255-262. In: Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Ecoregions. Eds. Mittermeier, R.A., Robles-Gil, P., Hoffmann, M., Pilgrim, J.D., Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, C.G., Lamoreux, J.L. & Fonseca, G. Second Edition. Cemex, Mexico.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Davenport, T.R.B., Behangana, M., Kityo, R., Eilu, G., Ssegawa, P., Ewango, C., Meirte, D., Kahindo, C., Herremans, M., Kerbis Peterhans, J., Pilgrim, J., Wilson, M., Languy, M. and Moyer, D.   2007. The Biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biological Conservation 134, 178-194.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Dranzoa, C. & Owiunji, I. 2001. Bird Communities in Logged and Unlogged African Forests. Lessons from Uganda and Beyond. pp. 213-238 In: The cutting edge: conserving Wildlife in logged Tropical Forests. Eds: R.A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, and J.G. Robinson. Columbia University Press, New York.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Gray, M., Languy, M. and Mubalama, L. 2006. Vers un système de suivi et de recherche au Parc National des Virunga. In : Languy, M. and de Merode, E. (eds). Virunga : survie du Premier Parc d’Afrique. Lannoo, Tielt, Belgique, pp 279-288.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kayitare, A., Rainer, H., Gray, M., Munanura, I., Barakabuye, N., Asuma, S., Sivha, M., and Namara, A. 2004. The Socio-economic Status of People Living Near Protected Areas in the Central Albertine Rift. Albertine Rift Technical Reports, No.4.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kirunda, B., Mugabe, H., Stabach, J., Driciru, M., Picton-Phillipps, G., Ayebare, S., Nangendo G., and Laporte, N. 2010. The impact of fire and large mammals on the ecology of Queen Elizabeth National Park. Unpublished Report, WCS.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D. and Matunguru, J. 2008. Survey of Chimpanzees in the Virunga Park and an assessment of a potential corridor to Mt Hoyo. Unpublished Report to USFWS. Project 98210 – 7– G231-GA-0400.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D. and Nampindo, S. 2009. Conservation of Landscapes in the Albertine Rift. pp 27-34 In: Protected Areas, Governance and Scale. Eds. K. H. Redford & C. Grippo. WCS Working Paper No. 36. 182 pp.  www.wcs.org/science
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D. and Treves, A. 2004. Selection of Landscape Species for the Greater Virunga Landscape. Transboundary meeting Report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Matunguru, J., Kahindo, C., Kaleme, P., Marks, B. and Huhndorf, M. 2007. Biodiversity surveys in the Misotshi-Kabogo and Marungu regions of the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, with a focus on chimpanzees. Unpublished report to USFWS (project: 98210-6-G035).
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Matunguru, J., Kahindo, C., Kaleme, P., Marks, B. and Huhndorf, M. 2008. Biodiversity surveys in the Misotshi-Kabogo and Marungu regions of the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Albertine Rift Technical Reports No 5. 75pp.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Moyer, D., Driciru, M., & Rwetsiba, A. 2010.Greater Virunga Landscape Large Mammal Surveys 2010. Unpublished Report to ICCN and UWA.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Treves, A., Owiunji, I., and Rainer H. 2007. Transboundary conservation in the Greater Virunga Landscape: its importance for landscape species. Biological Conservation 134, 279-287.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D.,Owiunji, I.,Rwetsiba, A.,Wanyama, F. and Mwima, P 2007. Strengthening elephant conservation in the Greater Virunga Landscape. Unpublished Report to ICCN, UWA and USFWS project 98210 – 6 – G035.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Masozera, M. & Vedder, A. 2001. The impact of civil war on the conservation of protected areas in Rwanda. In: The Trampled Grass. Biodiversity Support Program, Washington DC. www.worldwildlife.org/bsp/publications/africa/145/pdf/Rwanda.pdf
 
Plumptre, A.J., Masozera, M., Fashing, P.J., McNeilage, A, Ewango, C., Kaplin, B.A., and Liengola, I. (2002) Biodiversity Surveys of the Nyungwe Forest Reserve in SW Rwanda. WCS Working Paper No. 19, 1-93.
 
Plumptre, A.J., McNeilage, A., Hall, J. S. and Williamson, E.A. 2003. The current status of gorillas and threats to their existence at the beginning of a new millennium. pp. 414-431 In: Gorilla Biology: a Multidisciplinary Perspective. Eds. Taylor, A.B. & Goldsmith, M.L. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Mugume, S., Cox, D., & Montgomery, C. 2001. Chimpanzee and large mammal survey of Budongo Forest Reserve and Kibale National Park. Report to WCS on surveys in Western Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Mutungire, N., Tumusiime, R., Cox, D. and Montgomery C. 2002. Chimpanzee and large mammal survey of Kalinzu, Kasyoha-Kitomi and Maramagambo Forests. Report to WCS on surveys in Western Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Picton-Phillipps, G., Stabach, J. Laporte, N., Ourum, E., Ayebare, S., Grosch, R., Knox, R, and Akuguzibwe, T. 2008. Modeling factors that predict the distribution and density of ungulate species in the Queen Elizabeth National Park: preliminary findings. Unpublished report to Woods Hole Research Center.
 

Plumptre, A.J., Rose, R., Nangendo, G., Williamson, E.A., Didier, K., Hart, J., Mulindahabi, F., Hicks, C., Griffin, B., Ogawa, H., Nixon, S., Pintea, L., Vosper, A., McClennan, M., Amsini, F., McNeilage, A., Makana, J.R., Kanamori, M., Hernandez, A., Piel, A., Stewart, F., Moore, J., Zamma, K., Nakamura, M., Kamenya, S., Idani, G., Sakamaki, T., Yoshikawa, M., Greer, D., Tranquilli, S., Beyers, R., Furuichi, T., Hashimoto, C., and Bennett, E. 2010. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for the Eastern Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). IUCN, Gland.

Prinsloo, S., Mulondo, P., Mugiru, G. and Plumptre, A.J. (2012). Measuring responses of wildlife to oil exploration operations in Murchison Falls National Park. Report of USAID WILD Program.

RDB and INECN 2009. Ten year transboundary strategic plan 2009-2018: Nyungwe-Kibira Landscape.


Rothman, J.M., Plumptre, A.J., Dierenfeld, E.S. and Pell, A.N. 2007. Nutritional composition of the diet of the gorilla (Gorilla beringei): a comparison between two montane habitats. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23, 673-682.

Sanderson, E.W., Redford, K.H., Vedder, A., Coppolillo, P.B. & Ward, S.E. (2002) A conceptual model for conservation planning based on landscape species requirements. Landscape and Urban Planning, 58, 41–56.

Segan, D.B., Watson,J.E.M., Nangendo, G., Ayebare, S. and Plumptre, A.J. (2012). Avoiding conflict and balancing trade-offs:Biodiversity Conservation in the context of Competing Land Uses. Wildlife Conservation Society, Unpublishedreport to USAID ABCG BATS.

Seimon, A. and Picton-Phillipps, G. 2009. Climatological Assessment of the Albertine Rift for Conservation Applications. White Paper for MacArthur Foundation.

Seimon, A., and Plumptre,A.J. (2012) Albertine Rift, Africa. Pp33-44. In: J. Hilty, C.C. Chester andM.S.Cross (eds) Climate and Conservation.Landscape and seascape science, planning and action. Island Press,Washington.373pp.

 

Shamavu, P., Kujirakwinja, D. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Establishing a conservation presence in the Mt Hoyo Reserve and development of a strategy for the conservation of a corridor. Unpublished Report to USFWS and ICCN: Project 96200‐9‐G096.
 
Ssemmanda, R and Plumptre, A.J. 2011. Declining Populations:what is the status of vultures in Queen Elizabeth National Park. Unpublished Report to MacArthur Foundation.
 
 
 
 
 
Treves, A. Plumptre, A.J., Hunter, L. and Ziwa, J. 2009. Identifying a potential lion, Panthera leo, stronghold in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda and Parc National des Virunga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 43, 1-8.
 
Treves, A., Andriamampianina, L., Didier, K., Gibson, J., Plumptre, A.J., Wilkie, D. and Zahler, P. 2006. A simple, cost effective method for involving stakeholders in spatial assessments of threats to biodiversity. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11, 43-54.
 
Treves, A., Mwima, P., Plumptre, A.J. and Isoke, S. 2010. Camera trapping forest-woodland wildlife of western Uganda reveals how gregariousness biases estimates of relative abundance and distribution. Biological Conservation, 143, 521-528.
 
UWA 2003. UWA Monitoring and Research Plan 2003-2008. Uganda Wildlife Authority.
 
 
Vedder, A., Naughton-Treves, L., Plumptre, A.J., Mubalama, L., Rutagarama, E. and Weber, W. 2001. Conflict and Conservation in the African Rain Forest. In: African Rain Forest Ecology and Conservation. Eds. W. Weber, LJ.T.. White, A. Vedder, & L. Naughton-treves. pp 557-562. Yale University Press, New Haven.
 
Wanyama, F, Muhabwe, R., Plumptre, A.J., Chapman, C.A.,and Rothman, J.M. 2010. Censusing large mammals in Kibale National Park: evaluation of the intensity of sampling required to determine change. African Journal of Ecology, 48, 953-961.
 
 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Plumptre, A.J. 1991. Plant-herbivore dynamics in the Birungas. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol.

Plumptre, A.J. 1993. The effects of trampling damage by herbivores on the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology 32, 115-129.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Reynolds, V. 1994. The impact of selective logging on the primate populations in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Journal of Applied Ecology 31, 631-641.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1995. The chemical composition of montane plants and its influence on the diet of the large mammalian herbivores in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. Journal of Zoology 235, 323-337.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1995. The importance of "seed trees" for the natural regeneration of selectively logged tropical forest. Commonwealth Forestry Review 74, 253-258.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Harris, S. 1995. Estimating the biomass of large mammalian herbivores in a tropical montane forest: a method of faecal counting that avoids assuming a "steady state" assumption. Journal of Applied Ecology 32, 111-120.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1996. Modelling the impact of large herbivores on the food supply of the mountain gorilla and implications for management. Biological Conservation 75, 147-155.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1996. Changes following 60 years of selective timber harvesting in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management 89, 101-113.
 
Plumptre, A. & Reynolds, V. 1996. Censusing chimpanzees in the Budongo forest. International Journal of Primatology 17, 85-99.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Bizumuremyi, J.B. 1996. Ungulates and hunting in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. The effects of the Rwandan civil war on ungulate populations and the socioeconomics of poaching. Report to the Wildlife Conservation Society.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Owiunji, I. 1997. Puvel's Illadopsis Illadopsis puveli in Budongo Forest: a new record for East Africa. Scopus 19, 114-116.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 1997. Shifting cultivation along the trans-african highway and its impact on the understorey bird comunity in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Bird Conservation International 7, 317-329.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Reynolds, V. 1997. Nesting behavior of chimpanzees:implications for censuses. International Journal of Primatology 18, 475-485.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Bizumuremyi, J-B., Uwimana, F. & Ndaruhebeye, J-D. 1997. The effects of the Rwandan civil war on poaching of ungulates in the Parc National des Volcans. Oryx 31, 265-273.
 
Dranzoa, C., Sande, E., Owiunji, I. & Plumptre, A.J. 1997. A survey of Nahan’s francolin Francolinus nahaniin two tropical rainforests of Uganda. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 4, 90-92.
 
Owiunji, I. & Plumptre, A.J. 1998. Bird communities in logged and unlogged compartments of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management 108, 115-126.
 
McNeilage, A., Plumptre, A.J., Brock-Doyle, A. and Vedder, A. 1998. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda Gorilla and Large Mammal Census, 1997. WCS Working Paper, 14. 52pp.
 
Dale, S., Mork, K., Solvang, R. & Plumptre, A.J. 2000. Edge effects on the understorey bird community in a logged forest in Uganda. Conservation Biology 14, 265-276.
 
Plumptre, A. J., Mugume, S., Cox, D., Bergl, R. & Rothen, L. 2000. Chimpanzee and other Large Mammals survey of Bugoma Forest Reserve and the Kagombe-Matiri Forest Reserve Complex. Report to WCS, on surveys in western Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2000. Monitoring mammal populations with line transect techniques in African forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 37, 356-368.
 
Newton-Fisher, N.E., Reynolds, V. & Plumptre, A.J. 2000. Food supply and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) party size in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 21, 613-628.
 
Babweteera, F., Plumptre, A.J., & Obua, J. 2000. Effect of gap size and age on climber abundance and diversity in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 38, 230-237.
 
Nchanji, A. C. and Plumptre, A.J. 2001. Elephant dung decay rates in Cameroon: problems for census methods. African Journal of Ecology 39, 24-32.
 
McNeilage, A., Plumptre, A.J., Brock-Doyle, A. & Vedder, A. 2001. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park Uganda: gorilla census 1997. Oryx 35, 39-47.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2001. The effects of habitat change due to selective logging on the fauna of forests in Africa. In: African Rain Forest Ecology and Conservation. Eds. W. Weber, LJ.T.. White, A. Vedder, & L. Naughton-treves. pp 463-479. Yale University Press, New Haven.
 
Vedder, A., Naughton-Treves, L., Plumptre, A.J., Mubalama, L., Rutagarama, E. and Weber, W. 2001. Conflict and Conservation in the African Rain Forest. In: African Rain Forest Ecology and Conservation. Eds. W. Weber, LJ.T.. White, A. Vedder, & L. Naughton-treves. pp 557-562. Yale University Press, New Haven.
 
Plumptre, A.J. and Williamson, E.A. 2001. Conservation-oriented Research in the Virunga Region. pp. 361-389. In: Mountain Gorillas: Three Decades of Research at Karisoke. Eds: M.M. Robbins, P.Sicotte & K.J. Stewart. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2001. Establishing Ecological Monitoring Programs: What, where and how to monitor, In: Congo Basin Information Series: Taking action to manage and conserve forest resources in the Congo Basin. Biodiversity Support Programme/CARPE, Washington DC.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Mugume, S., Cox, D., & Montgomery, C. 2001. Chimpanzee and large mammal survey of Budongo Forest Reserve and Kibale National Park. Report to WCS on surveys in Western Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J. & Grieser-Johns, A.D. 2001. Changes in Primate Communities following Logging Disturbance. pp. 71-92 In: The cutting edge: conserving Wildlife in logged Tropical Forests. Eds: R.A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, and J.G. Robinson. Columbia University Press, New York.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Dranzoa, C. & Owiunji, I. 2001. Bird Communities in Logged and Unlogged African Forests. Lessons from Uganda and Beyond. pp. 213-238 In: The cutting edge: conserving Wildlife in logged Tropical Forests. Eds: R.A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, and J.G. Robinson. Columbia University Press, New York.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Masozera, M. & Vedder, A. 2001. The impact of civil war on the conservation of protected areas in Rwanda. In: The Trampled Grass. Biodiversity Support Program, Washington DC. www.worldwildlife.org/bsp/publications/africa/145/pdf/Rwanda.pdf
 
Brownlow, A.R., Plumptre, A.J., Reynolds, V. and Ward, R. 2001. Sources of variation in the nesting behaviour of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 55, 49-55.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Masozera, M., Fashing, P.J., McNeilage, A, Ewango, C., Kaplin, B.A., and Liengola, I. (2002) Biodiversity Surveys of the Nyungwe Forest Reserve in SW Rwanda. WCS Working Paper No. 19: 1-93.
 
Dudley, J. P., Ginsberg, J.R., Plumptre, A.J., Hart, J.A., and Campos, L.C. 2002. Effects of war and civil strife on wildlife and wildlife habitats. Conservation Biology 16, 319-329.
 
Hill, C.M., Osborn, F.V. and Plumptre, A.J. 2002. Human-Wildlife Conflict: identifying the problem and possible solutions. Albertine Rift Technical Reports Series. No. 1. 137pp.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2002. The Extent and Status of Forests in the Ugandan Albertine Rift. Report to UNDP/GEF PDFb process, Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Mutungire, N., Tumusiime, R., Cox, D. and Montgomery C. 2002. Chimpanzee and large mammal survey of Kalinzu, Kasyoha-Kitomi and Maramagambo Forests. Report to WCS on surveys in Western Uganda.

Sanderson, E.W., Redford, K.H., Vedder, A., Coppolillo, P.B. & Ward, S.E. (2002) A conceptual model for conservation planning based on landscape species requirements. Landscape and Urban Planning, 58, 41–56.

Plumptre, A.J., McNeilage, A., Hall, J. S. and Williamson, E.A. 2003. The current status of gorillas and threats to their existence at the beginning of a new millennium. pp. 414-431 In: Gorilla Biology: a Multidisciplinary Perspective. Eds. Taylor, A.B. & Goldsmith, M.L. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2003. Lessons learned from on-the-ground conservation in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 16, 71-79.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Cox, D. and Mugume, S. 2003. The status of Chimpanzees in Uganda. Albertine Rift Technical Reports Series No. 2, 70pp.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Behangana, M., Davenport, T., Kahindo, C., Kityo, R., Ndomba, E., Nkuutu, D., Owiunji, I., Ssegawa, P., and Eilu, G. 2003. The Biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Albertine Rift Technical Reports No. 3, pp105. www.albertinerift.org.
 
Nchanji, A.C. and Plumptre, A.J. 2003. Seed germination and early seedling establishment of some elephant-dispersed species in Banyang-mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, south-western Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19, 229-237.
 
Davenport, T.R.B., Lodu, E., Howard, P.C and Plumptre, A.J. 2003. Robust Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Otzi Forest Reserve, Northern Uganda. African Primates, 5, 46-48.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Arnold, M. and Nkuutu, D. 2003. Conservation Action Plan for Uganda’s Chimpanzees: 2003-2008. Unpublished National Action Plan, Uganda.
 
UWA 2003. UWA Monitoring and Research Plan 2003-2008. Uganda Wildlife Authority.
 
Bush, G.K., Nampindo, S., Aguti, C. and Plumptre, A.J. 2004. Valuing Uganda’s Forests: A Livelihood and Ecosystems Approach. Unpublished report to National Forest Authority, Uganda.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kayitare, A., Rainer, H., Gray, M., Munanura, I., Barakabuye, N., Asuma, S., Sivha, M., and Namara, A. 2004. The Socio-economic Status of People Living Near Protected Areas in the Central Albertine Rift. Albertine Rift Technical Reports, No.4.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2004. Priority Sites for Conservation in the Albertine Rift and the Importance of Transboundary Collaboration to Preserve Landscapes. pp. 233-238. In: Managing Mountain Protected Areas: Challenges and Responses for the 21st Century. Eds: D. Harmon and G. L. Worboys. Andromeda Editrice, Italy.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Davenport, T.R.B., Behangana, M., Kityo, R., Eilu, G., Ssegawa, P., Ewango, C., and Kahindo, C. 2004. Albertine Rift, pp 255-262. In: Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Ecoregions. Eds. Mittermeier, R.A., Robles-Gil, P., Hoffmann, M., Pilgrim, J.D., Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, C.G., Lamoreux, J.L. & Fonseca, G. Second Edition. Cemex, Mexico.
 
Brooks, T., Hoffmann, M., Burgess, N., Plumptre, A., Williams, S., Gereau, R.E., Mittermeier, R.A. & Stuart, S. 2004. Eastern Afromontane, pp. 241-242. In: Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Ecoregions. Eds. Mittermeier, R.A., Robles-Gil, P., Hoffmann, M., Pilgrim, J.D., Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, C.G., Lamoreux, J.L. & Fonseca, G. Second Edition. Cemex, Mexico.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D. and Treves, A. 2004. Selection of Landscape Species for the Greater Virunga Landscape. Transboundary meeting Report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.
 
Nampindo, S., Picton-Phillips, G., and Plumptre, A.J. 2005. The Impact of Conflict in Northern Uganda on the Environment and Natural Resource Management. Unpublished report to USAID.
 
Owiunji, I., Nkuutu, D., Kujirakwinja D., Liengola, I., Plumptre, A.J., Nsanzurwimo, A., Fawcett, K., Gray, M., and McNeilage, A. 2005. Biodiversity survey of the Virunga Volcanoes. Unpublished Report by WCS. www.albertinerift.org.
 
Plumptre, A.J. and Cox, D. 2005. Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda. Primates 47: 65-73.
 
Owiunji, I., Guma, N. and Plumptre, A.J. 2005. Report on Transboundary Law Enforcement Stakeholders Meeting. Transboundary meeting report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.
 
Kujirakwinja, D., Plumptre, A.J., Moyer, D. & Mushenzi, N. 2006. Recensement Aeriens des Grands Mammiferes 2006: Parc National des Virunga. Report to USFWS, and ICCN.
Nampindo, S., Plumptre, A,J, and Victurine, R. 2006. Increasing the Functionality of the Kyambura-Kasyoha-Kitomi Corridor and Mpanga Falls Area in the Greater Virunga Landscape: Management Options and Cost Implications. Unpublished report to WCS and Conservation International.
 
Plumptre, A.J. 2006. The Diets, Preferences and Overlap of the Primate Community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. pp. 345-371 In: Primates of Western Uganda. Eds. N.E. Newton-Fisher, H. Notman, J.D.Paterson and V.Reynolds. Springer, New York.
 
Plumptre, A.J. and Roberts, C. 2006. Attractions of Queen Elizabeth National Park: Perceptions about development of a golf course. Unpublished report for UWA.
 
Moyer, D., Plumptre, A.J., Pintea, L., Hernandez-Aguilar, A., Moore, J., Stewart, F., Davenport, T.R.B., Piel, A., Kamenya S., Mugabe, H., Mpunga, N. and Mwangoka, M. 2006. Surveys of Chimpanzees and other Biodiversity in Western Tanzania. Unpublished Report to United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 65pp.
 
Treves, A., Andriamampianina, L., Didier, K., Gibson, J., Plumptre, A.J., Wilkie, D. and Zahler, P. 2006. A simple, cost effective method for involving stakeholders in spatial assessments of threats to biodiversity. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11: 43-54.
 
De Merode, E., Plumptre, A.J., Gray, M., McNeilage, A., Fawcett, K. and Languy, M. 2006. Le statut des grands mammifères dans les savanes et les forêts du Parc National des Virunga. In : Languy, M. and de Merode, E. (eds). Virunga : survie du Premier Parc d’Afrique.  Lannoo, Tielt, Belgique. pp 185-196.
 
Lanjouw, A., Kayitare, A. and Plumptre, A.J. 2006. Gestion transfrontalière des resources naturelles de la region des Virunga. In : Languy, M. and de Merode, E. (eds). Virunga : survie du Premier Parc d’Afrique. Lannoo, Tielt, Belgique. pp 267-278.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Gray, M., Languy, M. and Mubalama, L. 2006. Vers un système de suivi et de recherche au Parc National des Virunga. In : Languy, M. and de Merode, E. (eds). Virunga : survie du Premier Parc d’Afrique. Lannoo, Tielt, Belgique. pp 279-288.
 
Transboundary Core Secretariat 2006. Ten year transboundary Strategic Plan: Central Albertine Rift Transboundary Area Network. UWA, ICCN and RDB.
 
Fashing, P.J., Mulindahabi, F., Gakima, J.B., Masozera, M., Munanura, I., Plumptre, A.J. and Nguyen, N. 2007. Activity and ranging patterns of Angolan Black and White Colobus (Colobus angolensis rwenzorii) in Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda: possible costs of large group size. International Journal of Primatology 28, 529-550.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Treves, A., Owiunji, I., and Rainer H. 2007. Transboundary conservation in the Greater Virunga Landscape: its importance for landscape species. Biological Conservation 134: 279-287.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Davenport, T.R.B., Behangana, M., Kityo, R., Eilu, G., Ssegawa, P., Ewango, C., Meirte, D., Kahindo, C., Herremans, M., Kerbis Peterhans, J., Pilgrim, J., Wilson, M., Languy, M. and Moyer, D.   2007. The Biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biological Conservation 134: 178-194.
 
Cordeiro, N.J., Burgess, N.D., Dovie, D.B.K., Kaplin, B., Plumptre, A.J., and Marrs, R. 2007. Conservation in areas of high population density in sub-saharan Africa. Biological Conservation 134: 155-163.
 
Oates, J.F., Tutin, C.E.G., Humle, T., Wilson, M.L., Baillie, J.E.M., Balmforth, Z., Blom, A., Boesch, C., Cox, D., Davenport, T., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Duvall, C., Ellis, C.M., Farmer, K.H., Gatti, S., Greengrass, E., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, C., Hunt, K.D., Kamenya, S., Maisels, F., Mitani, J.C., Moore, J., Morgan, B.J., Morgan, D.B., Nakamura, M., Nixon, S., Plumptre, A.J., Reynolds, V., Stokes, E.J. & Walsh, P.D. 2007. Pan troglodytes. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/15933/summ.
 
Barakabuye, N., Mulindahabi, F., Plumptre, A.J., Kaplin, B., Munanura, I., Ndagijimana, D., and Ndayiziga, O. 2007. Conservation of chimpanzees in the Congo-Nile divide forests of Rwanda and Burundi. Unpublished report to US Fish and Wildlife Service (Grant 98210-6-G095/GA0282.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Matunguru, J., Kahindo, C., Kaleme, P., Marks, B. and Huhndorf, M. 2007. Biodiversity surveys in the Misotshi-Kabogo and Marungu regions of the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, with a focus on chimpanzees. Unpublished report to USFWS (project: 98210-6-G035).
 
Rothman, J.M., Plumptre, A.J., Dierenfeld, E.S. and Pell, A.N. 2007. Nutritional composition of the diet of the gorilla (Gorilla beringei): a comparison between two montane habitats. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23, 673-682.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Owiunji, I., Rwetsiba, A., Wanyama, A., and Mwima, P. 2007. Strengthening elephant conservation in the Greater Virunga Landscape. Unpublished Report to ICCN, UWA and USFWS project 98210 – 6 – G035.
 
Owiunji, I. 2007. Report on Sensitization Workshop on Control of Illegal Wildlife Trade in the Geater Virunga Landscape. Transboundary meeting report by WCS, ICCN and UWA
 
TANAPA, JGI and FZS 2007. Greater Mahale Ecosystem Conservation Action Planning Meeting Report 1. Report to TANAPA.
 
Olupot, W. and Plumptre, A.J. 2008. The use of research: how science in Uganda’s national parks has been applied.15-26 In: Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Long- term Research. Eds. R. Wrangham and E. Ross. Cambridge University Press.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Matunguru, J., Kahindo, C., Kaleme, P., Marks, B. and Huhndorf, M. 2008. Biodiversity surveys in the Misotshi-Kabogo and Marungu regions of the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Albertine Rift Technical Reports No 5. 75pp.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Picton-Phillipps, G., Stabach, J. Laporte, N., Ourum, E., Ayebare, S., Grosch, R., Knox, R, and Akuguzibwe, T. 2008. Modeling factors that predict the distribution and density of ungulate species in the Queen Elizabeth National Park: preliminary findings. Unpublished report to Woods Hole Research Center.
 
Kujirakwinja, D., Bashonga, G. and Plumptre, A.J. 2008. Etude Socioeconomique de la Zone nord oust du Parc National des Virunga. Région de Lubero-Butembo-Beni. WWF EARPO, Nairobi 50pp.

Amsini, F., Ilambu, O, Liengola, I., Kujirakwinja, D., Hart, J., Grossman, F., and Plumptre, A.J. 2008. The Impact of civil war on the Kahuzi-Biega National Park: Results of surveys between 2000-2008. Unpublished report to ICCN.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D. and Matunguru, J. 2008. Survey of Chimpanzees in the Virunga Park and an assessment of a potential corridor to Mt Hoyo. Unpublished Report to USFWS. Project 98210 – 7– G231-GA-0400.
 
 
Kujirakwinja, D. and Matunguru, J. 2008. Proceedings of the Stakeholders Workshop on the Illegal Timber Trafficking between Uganda and DRC. Transboundary meeting report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.

TANAPA, JGI and FZS 2008. Greater Mahale Ecosystem Conservation Action Planning Meeting Report 2. Report to TANAPA.
 
TANAPA, JGI and FZS 2008. Greater Mahale Ecosystem Conservation Action Planning Meeting Report 3. Report to TANAPA.
 
Treves, A. Plumptre, A.J., Hunter, L. and Ziwa, J. 2009. Identifying a potential lion, Panthera leo, stronghold in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda and Parc National des Virunga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 43, 1-8.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D. and Nampindo, S. 2009. Conservation of Landscapes in the Albertine Rift. pp 27-34 In: Protected Areas, Governance and Scale. Eds. K. H. Redford & C. Grippo. WCS Working Paper No. 36. 182 pp. www.wcs.org/science.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Amsini, F., Kujirakwinja, D., Hart, J., Nyembo, B., Vyahavwa, C., Bujo, F., Masanga, A., Matunguru, J., Mwinyihali, R. and Tshombe, R. 2009. Itombwe Massif Conservation Project: Delimitation and zoning of the Itombwe Natural Reserve for protection of great apes. Unpublished Report to US Fish and Wildlife Service. Project 98210 – 7– G293.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Bamba, A., Shamavu, P., Kujirakwinja, D., Matunguru, J. 2009. Socioeconomic surveys around the Misotshi-Kabogo forest in south eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Unpublished Report to USFWS, USAID and WWF.
 
Olupot, W., Mugabe, H., and Plumptre, A.J. 2009. Species conservation on human-dominated landscapes: the case of crowned crane breeding and distribution outside protected areas in Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 48, 119-125.
 
Olupot, W., McNeilage, A.J. and Plumptre, A.J. 2009. An analysis of socioeconomics of bushmeat hunting at major hunting sites in Uganda. WCS Working Paper 28. 95pp.
 
Hammill, A., Crawford, A., Craig, R., Malpas, R. and Matthew, R. 2009. Conflict‐sensitive Conservation Practitioner’s Manual. IISD, Manitoba, Canada. 75pp.
 
Mwedde, G. 2009. Report of the Lake Edward Fisheries Stakeholders’ Workshop. Transboundary meeting report by WCS, ICCN and UWA.
 
Seimon, A. and Picton-Phillipps, G. 2009. Climatological Assessment of the Albertine Rift for Conservation Applications. White Paper for MacArthur Foundation.
 
Picton-Phillipps, G. and Seimon, A. 2009. Potential Climate Change Impacts in Conservation Landscapes of the Albertine Rift. White Paper for MacArthur Foundation.

Didier, K. A., Glennon, M.J.,  Novaro, A., Sanderson, E.W., Strindberg, S., Walker, S. and Di Martino, S. (2009). The Landscape Species Approach: spatially-explicit conservation planning applied in the  Adirondacks, USA, and San Guillermo-Laguna Brava, Argentina, Landscapes. Oryx, 43, 476-487.

Treves, A., Mwima, P., Plumptre, A.J. and Isoke, S. 2010. Camera trapping forest-woodland wildlife of western Uganda reveals how gregariousness biases estimates of relative abundance and distribution. Biological Conservation, 143, 521-528.
 
Owiunji, I. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. The importance of cloud forest sites in the conservation of endemic and threatened species of the Albertine Rift. In: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management. Eds. Bruijnzeel, L.A., Scatena, F.N. and Hamilton, L.S. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 
Buckland, S.T., Plumptre, A.J., Thomas, L. and Rexstad, E. 2010. Design and analysis of line transect surveys for primates. International Journal of Primatology 31, 833-847.
 
Buckland, S.T., Plumptre, A.J., Thomas, L. and Rexstad, E. 2010. Line transect surveys of primates:can animal-to-observer distance methods work? International Journal of Primatology, 31, 485-499.
 
Olupot, W. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Conservation Research in Uganda’s Forests:a review of Site History, Research and Use of Research in Uganda’s Forest Parks and Budongo Forest Reserve. Nova Science Publishers, New York.
 
Olupot, W., Parry, L., Gunness, M. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Conservation Research in Uganda’s Savannas: A Review of Park History, Applied Research and Application of Research to Park Management. Nova Science Publishers, New York.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Rose, R., Nangendo, G., Williamson, E.A., Didier, K., Hart, J., Mulindahabi, F., Hicks, C., Griffin, B., Ogawa, H., Nixon, S., Pintea, L., Vosper, A., McClennan, M., Amsini, F., McNeilage, A., Makana, J.R., Kanamori, M., Hernandez, A., Piel, A., Stewart, F., Moore, J., Zamma, K., Nakamura, M., Kamenya, S., Idani, G., Sakamaki, T., Yoshikawa, M., Greer, D., Tranquilli, S., Beyers, R., Furuichi, T., Hashimoto, C., and Bennett, E. 2010. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for the Eastern Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). IUCN, Gland.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Mutungire, N., Mugabe, H., Kirunda, B., Bogezi, C., Kityo, R., Behangana, M., and Turyeigurira, J. 2010. Biodiversity Surveys of Kabwoya Wildlife Reserve and Kaiso-Tonya Community Wildlife Area. Unpublished Report to USAID WILD Project.
 
Nangendo, G., Plumptre, A.J., and Akwetaireho, S. 2010. Identifying Potential Corridors for Conservation in the Murchison-Semliki Landscape. Unpublished Report to the UNDP/GEF Conservation of Biodiversity in the Albertine Rift Forests of Uganda Project.
 
Akwetaireho, S., Nangendo, G. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Assessment of Corridors in the Murchsion-Semliki Landscape. Unpublished Report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Akwetaireho, S., Hanni, D.C., Leal, M., Mutungire, M., Kyamanywa, J., Tumuhamye, D., Johnson, A., and Isoke, S. 2010. Biodiversity surveys of Bugoma Forest Reserve, smaller Central Forest Reserves, and corridor forests south of Bugoma. Unpublished Report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01.
 
Wanyama, F, Muhabwe, R., Plumptre, A.J., Chapman, C.A.,and Rothman, J.M. 2010. Censusing large mammals in Kibale National Park: evaluation of the intensity of sampling required to determine change. African Journal of Ecology, 48, 953-961.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kirunda, B., Mugabe, H., Stabach, J., Driciru, M., Picton-Phillipps, G., Ayebare, S., Nangendo G., and Laporte, N. 2010. The impact of fire and large mammals on the ecology of Queen Elizabeth National Park. Unpublished Report, WCS.
 
Shamavu, P., Kujirakwinja, D. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Establishing a conservation presence in the Mt Hoyo Reserve and development of a strategy for the conservation of a corridor. Unpublished Report to USFWS and ICCN: Project 96200‐9‐G096
Kujirakwinja, D., Shamavu, P., Hammill, A., Crawford, A., Bamba A. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Healing the Rift: Peace building in and around protected areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Albertine Rift. Unpublished Report to USAID.
 
Kujirakwinja, D. 2010. The status and conservation of common hippopotamuses in Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Cape Town.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Moyer, D., Driciru, M., & Rwetsiba, A. 2010.Greater Virunga Landscape Large Mammal Surveys 2010. Unpublished Report to ICCN and UWA.
 
Frederick, H., Moyer, D. and Plumptre, A.J. 2010. Aerial Procedures Manual, version 0.9  (Uganda). Wildlife Conservation Society.
 
Lasch, C., Pintea, L., Traylor-Holzer, K., and Kamenya, S. 2010. Tanzania Chimpanzee Conservation Action Planning Report.  Report to TANAPA by JGI.
 
Blomley, T., Namara, A., McNeilage, A., Franks, P., Rainer, H., Donaldson, A., Malpas, R., Olupot, W., Baker, J., Sandbrook, C., Bitariho, R. and Infield, M. 2010. Development and gorillas? Assessing fifteen years of integrated conservation and development in south-western Uganda, Natural Resource Issues No. 23. IIED, London.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Akwetaireho, S., Leal, M., Mutungire, M., Kyamanywa, J., Tumuhamye, D., Bamutura, B., Johnson, A., and Mukundane, R. 2011. Biodiversity surveys of the corridor forests east of Bugoma Forest Reserve up to Budongo Forest Reserve. Unpublished Report to Jane Goodall Institute and Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust.
 
Akwetaireho, S., Akuguzibwe, T. and Plumptre, A.J. 2011. Socioeconomic Values of Corridor Forests in the Albertine Rift Forests of the Murchison-Semliki Landscape. Unpublished report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01., JGI and CSWCT.
 
Leal, M., Akwetaireho, S., Nangendo, G. and Plumptre, A.J. 2011. Murchison-Semliki Landscape: Feasibility study for REDD.  Unpublished report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01., JGI and CSWCT.
 
Nampindo, S., Ujhazy, J and Plumptre, A.J. 2011. Public-Private Sector Financing Mechanisms to Support Sustainable Management of Forest Corridors in the Murchison-Semliki Landscape. Unpublished report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01.
 
Plumptre, A.J. (2011) Strategic Action Plan for Large Carnivore Conservation in Uganda: 2010-2020. Unpublished Plan for Uganda Wildlife Authority.
 
Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Bamba, A., and Shamavu, P. 2011. Creating the Misotshi-Kabogo Protected Area In Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Unpublished Report to ICCN and USFWS: Project 98210 – 8– G531.
 
Ssemmanda, R and Plumptre, A.J. 2011. Declining Populations:what is the status of vultures in Queen Elizabeth National Park. Unpublished Report to MacArthur Foundation.
 
Frederick, H., Moyer, D. Kujirakwinja, D, Shamavu, P. et Plumptre, A.J. (2011). Manuel des Procédures Aériennes v 0.9. Wildlife Conservation Society
 

Plumptre, A.J. 2012. The Ecological Impact of Long-term Changes in Africa’s Rift Valley. Nova Science Publishers, New York. 308pp.

Plumptre, A.J., Kujirakwinja, D., Rwetsiba. A., Wanyama, F., Nangendo, G., Fuller, R and Possingham, H. 2012. The Distribution of Landscape Species in the Greater Virunga Landscape: Conservation implications. Unpublished report to WCS

Prinsloo, S., Mulondo, P.,Mugiru, G. and Plumptre, A.J. (2012). Measuringresponses of wildlife to oil exploration operations in Murchison Falls NationalPark. Report of USAID WILD Program.

Seimon, A., and Plumptre,A.J. (2012) Albertine Rift, Africa. Pp33-44. In: J. Hilty, C.C. Chester andM.S.Cross (eds) Climate and Conservation.Landscape and seascape science, planning and action. Island Press,Washington.373pp.

Laurance, W. F., CarolinaUseche, D., Rendeiro, J., Kalka, M., Bradshaw, C. J. A., Sloan, S. P.,Laurance, S. G., Campbell, M., Abernethy, K., Alvarez, P., Arroyo-Rodriguez, V.,Ashton, P., Benitez-Malvido, J., Blom, A., Bobo, K. S., Cannon, C. H., Cao, M.,Carroll, R., Chapman, C., Coates, R., Cords, M., Danielsen, F., De Dijn, B.,Dinerstein, E., Donnelly, M. A., Edwards, D., Edwards, F., Farwig, N., Fashing,P., Forget, P.-M., Foster, M., Gale, G., Harris, D., Harrison, R., Hart, J.,Karpanty, S., John Kress, W., Krishnaswamy, J., Logsdon, W., Lovett, J.,Magnusson, W., Maisels, F., Marshall, A. R., McClearn, D., Mudappa, D.,Nielsen, M. R., Pearson, R., Pitman, N., van der Ploeg, J., Plumptre, A.,Poulsen, J., Quesada, M., Rainey, H., Robinson, D., Roetgers, C., Rovero, F.,Scatena, F., Schulze, C., Sheil, D., Struhsaker, T., Terborgh, J., Thomas, D.,Timm, R., Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, J., Vasudevan, K., Joseph Wright, S., CarlosArias-G, J., Arroyo, L., Ashton, M., Auzel, P., Babaasa, D., Babweteera, F.,Baker, P., Banki, O., Bass, M., Bila-Isia, I., Blake, S., Brockelman, W.,Brokaw, N., Bruhl, C. A., Bunyavejchewin, S., Chao, J.-T., Chave, J., Chellam,R., Clark, C. J., Clavijo, J., Congdon, R., Corlett, R., Dattaraja, H. S.,Dave, C., Davies, G., de Mello Beisiegel, B., Nazare Paes da Silva, R. d., DiFiore, A., Diesmos, A., Dirzo, R., Doran-Sheehy, D., Eaton, M., Emmons, L.,Estrada, A., Ewango, C., Fedigan, L., Feer, F., Fruth, B., Giacalone Willis, J.,Goodale, U., Goodman, S., Guix, J. C., Guthiga, P., Haber, W., Hamer, K.,Herbinger, I., Hill, J., Huang, Z., Fang Sun, I., Ickes, K., Itoh, A.,Ivanauskas, N., Jackes, B., Janovec, J., Janzen, D., Jiangming, M., Jin, C.,Jones, T., Justiniano, H., Kalko, E., Kasangaki, A., Killeen, T., King, H.-b.,Klop, E., Knott, C., Kone, I., Kudavidanage, E., Lahoz da Silva Ribeiro, J.,Lattke, J., Laval, R., Lawton, R., Leal, M., Leighton, M., Lentino, M., Leonel,C., Lindsell, J., Ling-Ling, L., Eduard Linsenmair, K., Losos, E., Lugo, A.,Lwanga, J., Mack, A. L., Martins, M., Scott McGraw, W., McNab, R., Montag, L.,Myers Thompson, J., Nabe-Nielsen, J., Nakagawa, M., Nepal, S., Norconk, M.,Novotny, V., O'Donnell, S., Opiang, M., Ouboter, P., Parker, K., Parthasarathy,N., Pisciotta, K., Prawiradilaga, D., Pringle, C., Rajathurai, S., Reichard, U.,Reinartz, G., Renton, K., Reynolds, G., Reynolds, V., Riley, E., Rodel, M.-O.,Rothman, J., Round, P., Sakai, S., Sanaiotti, T., Savini, T., Schaab, G.,Seidensticker, J., Siaka, A., Silman, M. R., Smith, T. B., Almeida, S. S. d.,Sodhi, N., Stanford, C., Stewart, K., Stokes, E., Stoner, K. E., Sukumar, R.,Surbeck, M., Tobler, M., Tscharntke, T., Turkalo, A., Umapathy, G., van Weerd,M., Vega Rivera, J., Venkataraman, M., Venn, L., Verea, C., Volkmer deCastilho, C., Waltert, M., Wang, B., Watts, D., Weber, W., West, P., Whitacre,D., Whitney, K., Wilkie, D., Williams, S., Wright, D. D., Wright, P., Xiankai,L., Yonzon, P., Zamzani, F. (2012). Averting biodiversity collapse in tropicalforest protected areas. Nature, 489, 290-294

WCS (2012). Attractions of Murchison Falls NationalPark: Perceptions about the Development of a Golf Course. Unpublished reportto Uganda Wildlife Authority.

Junker, J.; Blake, S.;Boesch, C.; Campbell, G.; Toit, L. d.; Duvall, C.; Ekobo, A.; Etoga, G.;Galat-Luong, A.; Gamys, J.; Ganas-Swaray, J.; Gatti, S.; Ghiurghi, A.; Granier,N.; Hart, J.; Head, J.; Herbinger, I.; Hicks, T. C.; Huijbregts, B.; Imong, I.S.; Kuempel, N.; Lahm, S.; Lindsell, J.; Maisels, F.; McLennan, M.; Martinez,L.; Morgan, B.; Morgan, D.; Mulindahabi, F.; Mundry, R.; N'Goran, K. P.;Normand, E.; Ntongho, A.; Okon, D. T.; Petre, C.-A.; Plumptre, A.; Rainey, H.;Regnaut, S.; Sanz, C.; Stokes, E.; Tondossama, A.; Tranquilli, S.;Sunderland-Groves, J.; Walsh, P.; Warren, Y.; Williamson, E. A.; Kuehl, H. S., (2012)Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions for African great apes. Diversity and Distributions, 18, 1077-1091. 

Segan, D.B., Watson, J.E.M.,Nangendo, G., Ayebare, S. and Plumptre, A.J. (2012). Avoiding conflict and balancing trade-offs:Biodiversity Conservation in the context of Competing Land Uses. Wildlife Conservation Society, Unpublishedreport to USAID ABCG BATS.

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

One of the potential financing options that exists for conservation of natural forest is through REDD. The idea is that western nations offset their carbon emissions by paying to protect natural forest which is a source of about 20% of all carbon emissions.  These funds could provide incentives for people who have natural forest on their land, or to national governments to protect forest rather than convert it to agriculture. WCS has been leading a feasibility analysis for REDD+ funding in the Murchison-Semliki Landscape, the Mt Hoyo-Virunga Park corridor of the Greater Virunga Landscape, the Itombwe Massif of the Maiko-Itombwe Landscape and the proposed Ngamikka Park of the Marungu-Kabogo Landscape. 

Murchison-Semliki Landscape
The project in the Murchison-Semliki Landscape is the most advanced to date and a Project Design Document has been drafted since the feasibility analysis was completed. We are working with the local farmers and our partners in this landscape to agree on the best mechanisms for disbursement of any REDD+ funds to farmers that would minimize costs of implementation but at the same time ensure that carbon stocks are monitored and are conserved.  It is estimated that about 31 million tones of CO2 could be sequestered if deforestation could be halted yielding about $153 million USD over the lifetime of the project. Funding that could be generated from selling carbon credits would raise about 70% of the costs to offset what farmers could make by converting these forests to agriculture in the short term but are likely to provide options over a longer period as the fertility of the soil declines within 4-5 years once the forest is cleared. We are contacting the private sector to look at options of improving agricultural yield outside the forests and to encourage shade tree production of coffee and cocoa that could widen the corridor and potentially add a premium to the price of the crop.

Virunga-Mt Hoyo Project
WCS has made a preliminary assessment of the potential for the forest corridor between Virunga Park and the Mt Hoyo Reserve to the north to generate financing for local people in this region.  Given the rates of deforestation over the past ten years in the region we estimate that 6 million tones of CO2  could be sequestered providing $30.3 million USD over the next twenty years to farmers living around this corridor. We will be working on developing this project with Congo Basin Forest Funds in the near future.

Itombwe Massif
WCS has made a preliminary assessment of the carbon sequestration potential of the proposed boundaries of the Itombwe Reserve once it is finally gazette.  Given the current rates of deforestation in the vicinity of the proposed reserve we estimate that over 20 years this site could sequester 12.3 million tones of CO2 yielding about $46.9 million USD for farmers living in and around this reserve.  We are looking for funding to undertake a more detailed assessment ofthis site and develop a Project Design Document.

Proposed Ngamikka National Park
The proposed Ngamikka National Park in the Marungu-Kabogo Landscape would conserve an area of about 2,180 km2 of forest, woodland and grassland. Given the current rates of deforestation around the proposed park we estimate that in a project period of twenty years that 2,655 tonnes of CO2 generating about $10.2 million USD for farmers living around the park. We are looking for funding to be able to develop this project into a Project Design Document which would help us access REDD+ funding for the local communities once the park is established.

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

WCS works to conserve species as well as wild lands or landscapes. In the Albertine Rift we have been targeting species that are either endemic or threatened in the region, or that are ‘landscape species’. Landscape species are those species that tend to be large-bodied, live at low density, have large home ranges and are often iconic and have socioeconomic significance. Many landscape species perform important ecological functions in natural habitats such as modifying the vegetation and creating habitat, dispersing seeds or are important in nutrient cycling. As a result these species require large areas of natural habitat and are often the first to be extirpated as a result of conflict with man. We have identified landscape species for the Greater Virunga Landscape using a detailed selection process as proposed by Sanderson et al. (see publications list) but here we summarise our work across the Rift on certain groups of landscape species.
 
Three groups of landscape species have been the target of studies in the Albertine Rift:

  1. Apes – chimpanzees, mountain gorillas and Grauer’s gorillas
  2. Large Herbivores
  3. Large Carnivores – lion, hyaena and leopard together with large raptors, particularly vultures

In addition to our work on landscape species we have also undertaken biodiversity surveys in all of the forests of the Albertine Rift using the same methods which allows us to compare the species richness and conservation value of the various forests throughout the rift. We are using these data to identify areas of conservation priority for the Albertine Rift.

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Many of the landscapes in the Albertine Rift are made up of several protected areas which are contiguous. Two of the landscapes, the Greater Virunga and Congo-Nile Divide straddle international borders also. WCS, with its partners, has been encouraging the management of these larger landscapes which involves improving coordination and planning between the various protected areas or countries. In the case of landscapes that straddle the international borders an increased level of complexity is added because of the need to coordinate activities between different government agencies and, in the case of the Greater Virunga Landscape, working in different languages.

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

WCS supports transboundary collaboration in both landscapes, the only NGO to do so.

Greater Virunga Landscape

International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP) started a process of transboundary collaboration in 1991 between Uganda, Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for the Virunga Volcanoes and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, where mountain gorillas are found. These areas form 5% of the Greater Virunga Landscape but for many years only this part of the landscape was involved in transboundary collaboration despite proposals having been made since the late 1980s that it take place across the whole landscape. In 2003 the WCS Albertine Rift Program decided to expand the collaboration to the rest of the landscape, to ensure coordination and collaboration between DRC and Uganda for the Virunga, Queen Elizabeth, Rwenzori Mountains and Semuliki National Parks.  Partnering with ICCN and UWA (the parks authorities in the two countries) we developed a program that brings together the wardens of the parks (or park sectors) together to discuss transborder issues every 4 months and each year we tackle a specific issue with a wider group of stakeholders which have included the police, military, customs, immigration, forest departments/authorities, universities, other NGO partners, local government etc. These stakeholder meetings aim to  educate people about issues in the landscape or to try and develop solutions to problems that exist for conservation.  Subjects that have been tackled include:

1.             Assessing landscape species in the landscape and threats to their long term viability

2.             Assessing the laws of DRC and Uganda pertaining to wildlife and improving law enforcement in the region

3.             Improving knowledge of customs and immigration officials about the wildlife trade and trade in wildlife products

4.             Tackling issues over transboundary fisheries management on Lake Edward

5.             Regional monitoring and training in ranger-based monitoring

6.             Tackling the timber trade from DRC to Uganda

7.            Building the capacity of UWA and ICCN staff to be able to manage oil development in and around the Greater Virunga Landscape

These meetings have been very effective at engaging other stakeholders that the protected area authorities need to work with and have led to improved relations and better coordination between them as a result.

WCS also supports coordinated patrols that operate along the international borders and provides equipment for these patrols. Park guards cannot cross the international border for legal reasons and therefore what used to happen was that poachers when being pursued would head for the border because they knew they couldn’t be followed once they had crossed it. The incidences of poaching have significantly dropped in the border areas since we started supporting regular coordinated patrols at the border whereby rangers patrol the boundary at the same time on both sides of the border.

Over the period WCS has been supporting transboundary collaboration in the Greater Virunga Landscape agreements between the three governments have been developed over the transboundary collaboration process and a transboundary action plan was developed by the three protected area authorities. A core secretariat was established for the Greater Virunga Landscape, the Greater Virunga Transboundary Core Secretariat (GVTC), which now coordinates the transboundary activities between the countries. WCS is in the process of handing over responsibility of coordination activities in the north of the landscape to the GVTC and will remain engaged primarily in a technical capacity.

Congo-Nile Divide

Building on the success of the transboundary collaboration in the Greater Virunga Landscape WCS initiated a similar process of collaboration between Rwanda and Burundi in the Congo-Nile Divide Landscape. This programme, which is spearheaded by our Rwanda country program, has developed a MOU between the protected area authorities RDB and INECN in Rwanda and Burundi respectively. This led on to the development of a transboundary landscape plan and finally agreements between the two governments to collaborate in the management of this landscape. 

As part of the transboundary collaboration WCS has helped rehabilitate infrastructure in the Kibira National Park in Burundi following the civil war and destruction of patrol posts and park buildings there. We have also helped INECN develop a management plan for Kibira National Park and have been supporting aspects of the implementation of this plan.

Meetings between the wardens of both parks are not held  as regularly because there are fewer staff that need to be involved. Instead they tend to coordinate between each other and meet when there is a specific transboundary problem to resolve or to participate in joint training programme.

 

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Vultures are declining around the World. Much of this decline is a result of the use of a veterinary drugs in India and Asia which kill the vultures when they feed on carcasses that have received treatment with this drug, or due to the use of poisons such as carbofuran insecticides in East and southern Africa. Little was known about vulture species in Uganda apart from some basic monitoring of numbers. In 2011 WCS started a program to study vultures in the Greater Virunga Landscape, in particular the Lappet-faced vulture which is a threatened species and was identified as one of 13 landscape species for this landscape.
 
Richard Ssemmanda was taken on to lead this project and he was trained in the Masai Mara by Corinne Kendall in safe  trapping methods for these animals. He has subsequently captured several animals and put global positioning backpacks on two white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) which we are monitoring as part of a pilot project to study this group. Regular monitoring of vultures at kills in Queen Elizabeth park indicate that there are few vultures of any species and even the most abundant species, the white-backed vulture, numbers less than 350 individuals. In one poisoning event this year over 50 white-backed vultures were killed indicating the level of impact that poisoning of carcasses can have on vulture numbers.

The radio tracking data is indicating where likely breeding sites occur in the landscape and given there are no breeding records of vultures in Uganda it is important to identify these and ensure they are protected.  They have also shown that the vultures move long distances between parks, with one individual flying directly to Lake Mburo National park about 100 km east of Queen Elizabeth Park.

We are looking for funding to expand the pilot project and start to work on conservation actions for vultures in this landscape and in Uganda.

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

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