A total of 42 species of bird are endemic to the Albertine Rift. This list combines two of Birdlife International’s endemic bird areas (Albertine Rift and Eastern Zairean Lowlands) because there is overlap in the distribution of some of these species. The newly described Willard’s Sooty Boubou has been added here because the only known specimens are from the Albertine Rift but more research is needed on this species.
Congo Bay Owl
African Green Broadbill
Red-collared Mountain Babbler
Chapin's Mountain Babbler
Grauer's Cuckoo Shrike
Archer's Ground Robin
Kivu Ground Thrush
Montane Masked Apalis
Grauer's Rush Warbler
Red-faced Woodland Warbler
Yellow-eyed Black Flycatcher
Willard’s sooty boubou
Yellow-crested Helmet Shrike
Rwenzori Double-collared Sunbird
Sassi's Olive Greenbul
Oberlander's/Forest Ground Thrush
Nineteen reptile species have been classified as endemic to the Albertine Rift with a further three near-endemic. Seven of these are Chameleons and six Skinks. Few snakes are endemic to this region.
Endemic (END) or
Near Endemic (NE)
Amphibians are facing an unprecedented crisis at the moment around the World. Over one third of known species are classified as threatened with extinction by IUCN. This is partly due to habitat loss but also due to pollution of rivers and streams and also due to new diseases that have emerged.
At the same time we do not know many of the species that occur in the World with new species being discovered at an increasing rate with new genetic techniques. In Central Africa it is clear that there are many newspecies to be discovered but at the same time there are very few herpetologists from Africa who are studying amphibians. The African Amphibian Working Group held its 16th meeting in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in 2014 to share experiences between herpetologists working in Africa but at the same time to train up a new cohort of African scientists who will work on this group of threatened animals.
A training program was held before the meeting and attended by 18 African scientists from Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda and included an overview of what is known about amphibians on this continent and training in how to study and collect specimens correctly, to preserve tissue for DNA analysis and how to study the emerging disease caused by Chytrid fungus which is responsible for the decline and extinction of many amphibian species. A short video about that training can be accessed here:
WCS has been partnering with the Michele Menegon at the Science Museum at Trento, Italy, Mathias Behangana at the Makerere University in Uganda, Eli Greenbaum at the University of Texas, El Paso and Simon Loader at the University of Basel in Switzerland to survey the amphibians of the Albertine Rift. We have focused support to amphibian surveys in several sites in Uganda, Rwanda and DR Congo, notably Misotshi-Kabogo, Itombwe, Kahuzi Biega NP, Nyungwe NP, Bwindi Impenetrable NP, Virunga NP and Kabwoya WR. These surveys have identified at least 10 new species for the World with more likely to be discovered in current surveys. These 10 species when described will increase the number of endemic species for the Albertine Rift by 25%.
Conserving the existing amphibians and these new species will be a challenge. Amphibians attract far less attention than large mammals and birds and consequently fundraising for their conservation is difficult. IUCN has given WCS a two year grant to work on the conservation of amphibians in the Itombwe and Misotschi-Kabogo massifs and to support the creation of two new protected areas at each of these sites. The aim is to ensure that the boundaries of these protected areas do conserve the 17 species of amphibians that are only found in these two sites in the World (with possibly more species to add as we analyse the surveys). Tracie Seimon at WCS's NY Health Centre is working on analysing the extent of infection by the Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in all specimens we collect to determine the importance of this disease and its impact on amphibians in the Albertine Rift. This fungus has been responsible for the decline of many amphibian populations around the World, although it originates from Africa and so may not be as dangerous to amphibians on this continent as a result of adaptation.
At least 38 amphibians are endemic to the Albertine Rift. Many of these species have some form of IUCN classification as they are considered threatened or little is known about their distribution.
The species of great apes around the World are all threatened with extinction. The Albertine Rift region contains more apes than any other ecoregion with two species and three subspecies of ape. For two of the apes, mountain and Grauer’s gorillas, the Albertine Rift contains their world range. WCS works to conserve each of these three apes in the Albertine Rift region using a variety of approaches which include support to habitat conservation, support to antipoaching patrols, surveys of populations, research on their conservation needs, development of species action plans, and support to minimizing conflicts between apes and local people.
The three apes we conserve in the Albertine Rift are:
The Albertine Rift is one of the most biodiverse places on Earth. Since 2000 WCS has been compiling published species lists for various sites where surveys have been made since the 1930s and updating all of the names for changes in nomenclature which have taken place over time. To date we have documented a total of 1,779 terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians) of which 140 are endemic to the Albertine Rift and 78 are classified as globally threatened on the IUCN redlist. 6,409 plant species have also been recorded of which 341 are endemic (although this list is still being improved and may well increase in number) and 73 are threatened.
WCS has used the numbers of endemic and numbers of threatened species it has compiled to identify the priority sites for conservation. The results of this were published in the Albertine Rift Technical Reports Series (No. 3). Effectively the sites in the rift were ranked for the number of endemic mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and plants separately. Mean rankings were then calculated across all these taxa to provide an average ranking and these were then reduced to three categories of high, medium and low ranking sites. This process was repeated for threatened species. The table below summarises the results. The columns rank the number of threatened species and the rows rank thenumber of endemic species. Virunga, Kahuzi Biega, Kibale, Bwindi Impenetrable, and Nyungwe National Parks together with the Itombwe Massif and the proposed Ngamikka National Park in the Marungu-Kabogo Landscape are the priority sites for conservation in the Albertine Rift.
Reports include surveys of:
However, it was clear that many sites had not been surveyed as well as others or had only been surveyed for certain taxa but not others. This led to a 10 year program to survey the biodiversity of most of the sites in the Albertine Rift. We have primarily focused on large mammals, birds and plants (excluding mosses, liverworts and lichens) but have collaborated with Julian Kerbis Peterhans at the Field Museum in Chicago who is an expert on the small mammals of this region and with Michele Menegon, of the Museo delle Scienze in Trentino, and Eli Greenbaum, at the University of Texas at El Paso, who are studying the reptiles and amphibians here.
We are in the process of using species distribution data we have compiled and collected in surveys we have made to create species distribution models for the endemic and threatened species in collaboration with other scientists. These will then be use in a Marxan analysis to assess the minimum number of sites within the protected areas which are critical for the conservation of all of the endemic and threatened species in the Albertine Rift. We believe this analysis will also identify potential sites outside existing protected areas that need to be conserved also.
Endemic butterflies of the Albertine Rift
- an annotated checklist
Tim R.B. Davenport
Wildlife Conservation Society PO Box 1475, Mbeya Tanzania
June, 2002 (revd Feb 2003)
1. Introduction Page 3
2. Information sources and acknowledgements Page 3
3. Taxonomy Page 3
4. Information provided Page 3
5. Why butterflies? Page 4
6. The Albertine Rift Page 4
7. Discussion Page 7
8. The Checklist Page 8
9. Key Page 12
10. References Page 13
Appendix 1. Gazetteer of localities for DRC and Tanzania Page 14
Figure 1. Map of the Albertine Rift. All 123 species in the checklist are found Page 5 exclusively within the shaded area of the map.
Figure 2. Map of western Uganda, illustrating major forest localities Page 5 mentioned in the checklist (coded) and other protected areas
uncoded). For key, see page 12
Figure 3. Map of the central section of the Albertine Rift, illustrating major Page 6 localities in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda
mentioned in the checklist (coded). For key, see page 12
Figure 4. Map of western Tanzania, illustrating major localities mentioned Page 6 in the checklist coded). For key, see page 12
This checklist of the endemic butterflies (Rhopalocera) of the Albertine Rift was compiled as part of a strategic planning process for the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Albertine Rift Programme. Some 117 butterfly species are listed, all of which are found exclusively within the Albertine Rift. This represents the first checklist to document specifically the endemic butterflies of these parts of Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia. Whilst no checklist of this nature can ever be considered comprehensive, it is hoped that the list is as complete and topical as current knowledge permits. Drawn from the available literature and personal observations, the document provides information on each endemic species including recorded localities, as well as broader details on the Albertine Rift itself.
2. Information sources and acknowledgements
Information has been drawn from a variety of sources including Carcasson (1961; 1975), D’Abrera (1980; 1997), Henning (1988), Kielland (1990), Larsen (1991), Ackery, et al. (1995), Davenport (1996), Howard & Davenport (1996), Congdon & Collins (1999), Congdon, Gardiner
& Bampton (2001), as well as numerous workers from earlier parts of the last century (e.g. Butler, Carpenter, Evans, Heron, Jackson, Joicey, Neave, Rebel, Rogers, Stempffer, Talbot, van Someren). Additional information came from collections held at Makerere University Zoology Museum, Kampala and the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi. Steve Collins (ABRI, Nairobi) provided considerable and invaluable information, and I am very grateful to Colin Congdon (Tanzania) and Alan Gardiner (Zambia) for very useful comments on an earlier draft.
The higher classification of butterflies follows Kielland (1990) and Congdon and Collins (1999). Thus, four superfamilies (Papilionoidea, Lycaenoidea, Nymphaloidea and Hesperoidea) and nine families (Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Satyridae, Danaidae, Nymphalidae, Acraeidae and Hesperiidae) are recognised. Species are consistent, as far as possible, with Kielland (1990), Ackery et al., (1995) and Congdon and Collins (1999). The African distribution details and ecological affinities follow Davenport (1996).
4. Information provided
The list is arranged systematically to species level and alphabetically thereafter. As far as possible this conforms to the taxonomic sequences in the literature. The numbering system was designed for this checklist specifically. Species have not been provided with a common or colloquial name. The majority of taxa endemic to the Albertine Rift have never been endowed with one. The few that have are given in Davenport (1996).
Each species has been ascribed one of ten habitat types (although only five are associated with species in this list) based on the literature and personal observations in the field (Davenport,
1996; Howard and Davenport, 1996). These ecological affinities belong to three major categories,
namely forest-dependent species (F-species), characteristic of closed canopy forest habitats; forest non-dependent species (f-species), which may be recorded in closed-canopy forest but are not necessarily dependent upon it, and are more often encountered in a variety of forest edge, degraded forest and woodland habitats including Miombo (Brachystegia) in Tanzania; and non- forest (open habitat) species include those characteristic of a range of open savannah, grassland and arid habitats (O).
The species’ altitudinal range, if known or limited, has been given and expressed as metres above sea level. Each species has also been supplied with a list of countries in the Albertine Rift from which it has been recorded. Species that are endemic also to one of the six countries considered are marked accordingly. Finally, locality records are given for all butterflies where possible or known. In some instances, specific localities are not known and thus regions (such as north Kivu, western Uganda or Ufipa) are given.
There is confusion in the literature regarding distributions, particularly for the older records. Inevitably names and locations change with time and this is especially so in former colonies. For example in Uganda, Kibale has been referred to as Toro, Daro or Mpanga, the latter being problematical as there is also an Mpanga forest near Kampala. Bwindi Impenetrable has been termed as Kayonza or Kamengo (a name also given more usually to Semliki). As far as possible, the ‘old names’ have been changed to their currently used ones.
Being amongst the most colourful and conspicuous of invertebrate taxa, as well as diurnal in habit, more is known about the ecology and taxonomy of butterflies than any other major insect group. Whilst there remains a considerable amount to learn particularly about early stages, compared with most invertebrates much is understood about butterfly biology and ecology (Vane- Wright and Ackery, 1984). Often comprising distinct communities, suites of butterfly species
may be specific to geographical sub-regions and diverse ecological conditions (Howard and Davenport, 1996). These traits contribute to the value of butterflies as biological indicators and much research has been carried out over the past decade to support this (Kremen, 1992; 1994; Sparrow et al 1994; Beccaloni and Gaston, 1995; Howard et al., 1997; 1998).
The unequivocal environmental and dietary requirements of many species mean that their presence or absence can communicate much about a habitat and its health. Butterflies respond quickly to environmental changes and there is now considerable data on how particular species contend with alterations in land-use, and thus may play a valuable role in ecological monitoring (Daily and Ehrlich, 1995). The influence of seasonality on the presence or absence of adults of certain species, and on their morphology, as well as knowledge of species ecology must always be considered. However, the compilation of species lists may be used both qualitatively and
quantitatively, to comment on a habitat (its condition and vegetation) and to identify conservation and monitoring needs. Increasingly, therefore, butterflies are being used as tools in ecological
monitoring strategies (Pollard and Yates, 1993; Sparrow et al., 1994).
6. The Albertine Rift
There is no clear-cut definition of the Albertine Rift. For the purposes of this document, endemic butterflies of the Albertine Rift are those found only within the geographical boundaries illustrated in Figure 1. This area begins north of Lake Albert between Arua and Pakwach (West Nile, Uganda) and extends southward including Lendu Plateau, the lower reaches of the Kibali and Ituri rivers (Orientale, DRC), the forests of western Uganda and Kigezi (Uganda), north and south Kivu (DRC), western Rwanda and Burundi, Itombwe to Marungu in western Katanga (DRC), western Tanzania (Kigoma and Mpanda regions) and a small part of north west Zambia. Parts of the Ufipa Plateau, including Mbizi and other highland areas of Rukwa region (Tanzania) are also included. Figures 2-4 illustrate some of these areas in more detail.
Figure 3. Map of the central section of the Albertine Rift, illustrating major localities in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda mentioned in the checklist (coded). For key, see page 12
As far as can be ascertained there are 117 species of butterfly from 49 genera endemic to the Albertine Rift, amounting to approximately 3.2% of the total fauna for the continent including Madagascar. This figure is impressive, particularly when compared to the total of 78 species that are known to be endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains of southern Kenya and Tanzania (Congdon, Gardiner & Bampton, 2001). Of these 117 species, 21 are endemic to Tanzania, 23 to DRC, 21 to Uganda, 2 to Rwanda and 1 to Zambia. The remaining 52 species are distributed amongst the six nations with 16 species records for Burundi, 43 for DRC, 28 for Rwanda, 9 for Tanzania, 44 for Uganda and I for Zambia.
Endemic taxa are consistently distributed across the families with 3 Papilionidae, 8 Pieridae, 50
Lycaenidae, 8 Satyridae, 28 Nymphalidae, 8 Acraeidae and 12 Hesperiidae represented. Only
Riodinidae and Danaidae, the two smallest African families (represented by a total of 12 and 20 species respectively) are not present in this list. In terms of habitat preferences, 55 species are forest dependent (F), 1 forest lowland (FL) and 44 forest highland (FH), 11 species are forest non-dependent, 6 are from open habitats and 1 from open highland habitats. Thus 85.5% of the total are forest dependent, 9.4% forest non-dependent and 5.9% from open habitats.
This list is strictly limited to the area delineated in Figure 1. Had, for example, forests in the western shores of Lake Victoria (Sango Bay in Uganda and Minziro in Tanzania) been included, this list would approach 200 species. A considerable number of taxa are restricted to south west Uganda, eastern DRC and the lake Victoria shoreline. Indeed there are many similarities with the ecology of the lakeshore forests and the western highland forests (Howard & Davenport, 1996).
Similarly, the assumed boundary of the Albertine Rift cuts through eastern Ituri. If this were extended west to include more of this region, or north to include parts of southern Uele, a number of additional DRC endemics would be included. For example, Argiolaus bergeri, Stempffer 1953 (from Yindi and Kibali-Ituri), Hypokopelates tenuivittata, Stempffer 1951, (Epulu), Cupidesthes minor, Joicey & Talbot, 1921(Avakubi and Ituri river), Euriphene (Euriphene) rotundata,
Holland 1920 (Medje), Euphaedra intermedia, Rebel 1914 (North Kivu, Uele and Itoa River), Euphaedra sinuosa, Hecq 1974 (Beni and Uele) are all forest DRC endemics that have been ommitted.
Undoubtedly there are gaps in this list, particularly in respect to localities. Inevitably a list of this nature is a reflection of collectors and their preferences and research projects. There is, for example, much less published literature available about the butterfly fauna of Burundi. Moreover, many parts of DRC have presumably never been sampled. That notwithstanding a total of 117 species represents a very significant number of endemic taxa, further illustrating the considerable significance of the region for conservation.
8. The checklist
No Species Author Date Hab Altitude Country Localities
B, DC, R, U
PIERIDAE (YELLOWS & WHITES)
Theclinae (Strong Blues)
D10 D13 D23
T10 T22 T31
T4 T5 T29 U3
Stempffer & Bennett
T5 T17 T30 T32 T34
Argiolaus sp. nr. iturensis
Joicey & Talbot
Bx D11 D13 Rx U3
Bx D14 Rx U3 U4
Polyommatinae (Weak Blues)
DC, R, T, U
D13 Rx T17 U3 U4
DC, R, U
D29 R6 U4
D36 R3 R7
D13 D38 Rx U3 U9
SATYRIDAE (BROWNS & RINGLETS)
69 Bicyclus tanzanicus Condamin 1983 f 1500-2300 T* T5 T17 T28 T29
NYMPHALIDAE (BRUSHFOOTED BUTTERFLIES)
70 Charaxes alticola Grünberg 1911 FH 1400-2700 DC, R, U D13 R4 U3 U4
71 Charaxes gerdae Rydon 1989 f 900-1400 T* T10 T27
72 Charaxes grahamei van Someren 1969 F 800-1500 T* T6 T7 T17 T20 T25
73 Charaxes mafuga van Someren 1969 FH 1400-2600 B, R, U Bx Rx U3 U8
74 Charaxes montis Jackson 1956 FH 1400-2600 DC, U D13 U3 U8 U9
75 Charaxes opinatus Heron 1909 FH 1400-2600 B, DC, R, U Bx D13 Rx U3 U9
76 Charaxes schiltzei Bouyer 1991 FH 1400-2600 B, R, U Bx R6 U3
77 Charaxes turlini Minig & Plantrou 1978 FH R* R1 R2
78 Cymothoe collarti Overlaet 1942 F 1800 DC, R D5 R6
79 Cymothoe howarthi Rydon 1981 F DC* D13
80 Cymothoe ochreata Grose-Smith 1890 F DC, U D1 D7 D13 D18 U1 U2 U11
81 Pseudathyma debruynei Hecq 1990 F DC* D26
82 Kumothales inexpecta Overlaet 1940 F > 1400 DC, R, U D15 Rx U3 U4 U8
83 Euriphene (Euriphene) alberici Dufrane 1945 F 1050 DC* D28
84 Euriphene (Euriphene) excelsior Rebel 1911 F B, DC, R, U Bx D13 Rx U3
85 Euriphene (Euriphene) ituriensis Jackson & Howarth 1957 F DC* D7 D33
86 Bebearia hargreavesi D'Abrera 1980 FH >1500 DC* D25
87 Euphaedra barnsi Joicey & Talbot 1922 FH 1300-1600 DC, R D13 Rx
88 Euphaedra christyi Sharpe 1904 F U* U3 U5 U6 U7
89 Euphaedra confina Hecq 1992 F T* T26
90 Euphaedra cottoni Sharpe 1907 F 650-1000 DC* D6
91 Euphaedra ducarmei Hecq 1977 F DC* D33
92 Euphaedra graueri Rothschild 1918 FH DC* D33
93 Euphaedra margueriteae Hecq 1978 FH 1400-2600 DC, R, U D8 Rx U3
94 Euphaedra olivacea Grünberg 1908 F U* U3
95 Euphaedra phosphor Joicey & Talbot 1921 F 800-1200 B, DC, T Bx D40 T3 T10 T17
96 Euphaedra xerophila Hecq 1974 F DC* D41
97 Neptis lugubris Rebel 1914 FH 1400-2600 DC, U Dx U3
98 Acraea (Acraea) hamata Joicey & Talbot 1922 FH > 2000 DC, R, T, U D13 R7 Tx U3 U4 U8
99 Acraea (Acraea) kia Pierre 1990 F 1000 T* T23
100 Acraea (Acraea) turlini Pierre 1979 F 2500 R* R6
101 Acraea (Actinote) amicitiae Heron 1909 FH 1400-2600 B, DC, R, T, U Bx Dx Rx Tx U3 U4 U8 U9
102 Acraea (Actinote) burgessi Jackson 1956 FH DC, U D33 U3 U4 U8 U9
103 Acraea (Actinote) grosvenori Eltringham 1912 FL < 1600 DC, U D33 U3 U4 U8
104 Acraea (Actinote) hecqui Berger 1981 F DC* D32
105 Acraea (Actinote) pierre Berger 1981 F DC* D30
Pyrginae (Flats & Grizzled Skippers)
106 Celaenorrhinus hecqui
107 Celaenorrhinus kivuensis
Country DRC Rwanda B Burundi D1 Aruwimi river R1 Bugesera DC Democratic Rep. Congo D2 Boga R2 Karama
R Rwanda D3 Bugoi R3 Kisaba
T Tanzania D4 Bukavu-Shabundo R4 Mt Karissimbi
U Uganda D5 Djuga R5 Mt Sabinio
Za Zambia D6 Irumu-Mawambwi-Beni R6 Nyungwe
* National endemic D7 Ituri R7 Rugege
D8 Kahusha R8 Rugoge
Tanzania D9 Kamuhima R9 SW Rwanda
T1 Chala D10 Kibali-Ituri R10 Virunga
T2 Kahoko D11 Kisaba Rx Unspecified locality
T3 Gombe D12 Kitembo
T4 Ipumba D13 Kivu Zambia T5 Kampisa D14 Kivu Mts Z1 Kasama T6 Kasoge D15 Kivu-Rwenzori Z2 Fwambo
T7 Kasye D16 Kwidjwe Island Z3 NW Zambia
T8 Katuma river D17 Lake Kivu
T9 Kefu D18 Lesse Burundi
T10 Kigoma D19 Lowa valley Bx Unspecified locality
T11 Kungwe D20 Lower Batahu river
T12 Lake Tanganyika shore D21 Lubero-Mulo Uganda T13 Lindi river D22 Makala U1 Budongo T14 Longerengene D23 Mambasa U2 Bugoma T15 Lubalizi D24 Maniema U3 Bwindi* T16 Luluvia river D25 Masisi U4 Echuya
T17 Mahale D26 Mongbwalu U5 Kalinzu-Maramagambo
T18 Marungu D27 Mt Hoyot U6 Kasyoha-Kitomi
T19 Mbizi D28 Mt Kele U7 Kibale* T20 Mihumu D29 Mt Muhi U8 Mafuga
T21 Mishamu D30 Mukandwe U9 Mt Rwenzori*
T22 Mpanda D31 Mushari U10 Rwoho
T23 Mukuyu D32 Musisi-Kahusi U11 Semliki*
T24 Mweze D33 N. Kivu U12 Western Uganda
T25 Ntakatta D34 Nakele river
T26 Nyakanazi D35 Niragongo
T27 Sibwesa D36 NW Kivu Habitat Types
T28 Sisaga D37 Nyamununye F Forest dependent
T29 Sitebi Mt D38 Rwenzori FL Lowland forest dependent T30 Tubira D39 South Kivu FH Highland forest dependent T31 Ufipa D40 Lake Tanganyika shores f Forest non-dependent
T32 Usondo D41 Uvira O Open habitats
T33 Uvinza Dx Unspecified locality OH Highland open habitats
Tx Unspecified locality
Ackery, P.A., Smith, C.R. and Vane-Wright, R.I. (1995). Carcasson's African Butterflies – An Annotated Catalogue of the Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region. The Natural History Museum, London, UK. pp 803.
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A.B.R.I. – Lambillionea. Nairobi. pp 143.
Congdon, T.C.E., Gardiner, A. and Bampton, I. (2001). Some endemic butterflies of Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi. (In press). pp 19.
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rapid evaluations using butterfly trapping. Biodiversity and Conservation. 4, 35-55. Davenport, T.R.B. (1996). The Butterflies of Uganda - An Annotated Checklist. Uganda Forest
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Howard, P.C. and T. R. B. Davenport. (Eds). (1996). Forest Biodiversity Reports. Vols. 1-33.
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Uganda’s natural forests. Oryx 31: 253-264.
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Lwanga, R.A. Matthews and A. Balmford. (1998). Complementarity and the use of indicator groups for reserve selection in Uganda. Nature 394: 472-475.
Kielland, J. (1990). Butterflies of Tanzania. Hill House, Melbourne and London.
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Kremen, C. (1994). Biological inventory using target taxa: a case study of the butterflies of
Madagascar. Ecological Applications. 4(3), 407-422.
Larsen, T.B. (1991). The Butterflies of Kenya. Oxford University Press.
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monitoring neotropical butterflies. Conservation Biology. 8(3), 800-809.
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Entomological Society of London, 11). Academic Press, London.
Appendix 1. Gazetteer of localities for Tanzania and DRC
Aruwimi river Eastern Ituri Chala Ufipa, Rukwa region Beni North Kivu Gombe NP, Kigoma region Boga North of Beni Ipumba Mahale NP
Bugoi forest East Kivu Kampisa Mahale NP Bukavu-Shabundo East Kivu Kasoge Mahale NP Djuga Eastern Ituri Kasye Kigoma region Irumu-Mawambwi-Beni Eastern Ituri Katuma river Mpanda region Kahusha Kivu Kefu forest Kigoma region Kamuhima Kivu Kungwe Mahale NP Kibali River in Ituri Longerengene Mpanda region Kisaba Kivu Lubalizi forest Kigoma region Kitembo Kivu Luluvia river Kigoma region Kwidjwe Island Lake Kivu Marungu Mpanda region
Lesse Kivu Mbizi Ufipa, Rukwa region Lowa valley North Kivu Mihumu Kigoma region Lower Batahu River Semliki Valley Mishamu Mpanda region Lubero-Mulo North Kivu Mukuyu Kigoma region Makala North of Lake Edward Mweze Mahale NP
Mambasa North Kivu Ntakatta Mpanda region Maniema North Kivu Nyakanazi Biharamulo district Masisi North west of Lake Kivu Sibwesa Mpanda region Mongbwalu East Ituri near Bunia Sisaga Mahale NP
Mt Hoyot Ituri Sitebi Mt Mpanda region Mt Kele Kivu Tubira Kigoma region Mt Muhi Kivu Ufipa Rukwa region
Mukandwe Ruwenzori Usondo 55km south of Uvinza
Mushari Kivu Uvinza Kigoma region Musisi-Kahusi South Kivu Wanzizi South east of Mahale Nakele river Masisi
Niragongo North East Kivu
108 Metisella alticola
Dx R10 U3
109 Astictopterus bruno
T13 T16 T18
110 Parosmodes onza
111 Acleros neavei
DC, T, U
D7 D40 Tx
112 Andronymus bjornstadi
Congdon, et al.
113 Chondrolepis cynthia
114 Gretna bugoma
115 Platylesches fosta
116 Platylesches larseni
117 Zenonia crasta
Bx Dx Rx
U3 U4 U9
D31 U3 U4
Bx D17 D38
Bx D13 D16
D13 D24 U3
Bx D38 Rx
B, DC, R
LYCAENIDAE (BLUES, COPPERS, HAIRSTREAKS)
T10 T22 T27 T31
T9 T15 T21
D7 D33 U11
D33 Tx U1
Miletinae (Harvesters & Woolly Legs)
31 Spalgis jacksoni Stempffer 1967 f 600-800 T, U T7 T9 U11
Map of the Albertine Rift. All 123 species in the checklist are found exclusively within the shaded area of the map.
Map of western Uganda, illustrating major forest localities mentioned in the checklist (coded) and other protected areas uncoded) For key, see page 12