Albertine Rift

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Birds

A total of 42 species of bird are endemic to the Albertine Rift. This list combines two of Birdlife International’s endemic bird areas (Albertine Rift and Eastern Zairean Lowlands) because there is overlap in the distribution of some of these species.  The newly described Willard’s Sooty Boubou has been added here because the only known specimens are from the Albertine Rift but more research is needed on this species.

Family

Species

Common name

IUCN

AR endemic

Phasianidae

Francolinus nobilis

Handsome Francolin

 

AR

Musophagidae

Tauraco johnstoni

Rwenzori Turaco

 

AR

Strigidae

Glaucidium albertinum

Albertine Owlet

VU

AR

Tytonidae

Phodilus prigoginei

Congo Bay Owl

EN

AR

Caprimulgidae

Caprimulgus prigoginei

Itombwe Nightjar

EN

AR

Caprimulgidae

Caprimulgus ruwenzorii

Rwenzori Nightjar

 

AR

Indicatoridae

Indicator pumilio

Dwarf Honeyguide

NT

AR

Eurylaimidae

Pseudocalyptomena graueri

African Green Broadbill

VU

AR

Paridae

Parus fasciiventer

Stripe-breasted Tit

 

AR

Timaliidae

Kupeornis rufocinctus

Red-collared Mountain Babbler

NT

AR

Timaliidae

Kupeornis chapini

Chapin's Mountain Babbler

NT

AR

Campephagidae

Coracina  graueri

Grauer's Cuckoo Shrike

NT

AR

Pycnonotidae

Chlorocichla prigoginei

Prigogine's greenbul

EN

AR

Turdidae

Alethe poliophrys

Red-throated Alethe

 

AR

Turdidae

Cossypha archeri

Archer's Ground Robin

 

AR

Turdidae

Zoothera tanganjicae

Kivu Ground Thrush

NT

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis argentea

Kungwe Apalis

EN

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis kaboboensis

Kabobo Apalis

DD

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis personata

Montane Masked Apalis

 

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis Ruwenzori

Collared Apalis

 

AR

Sylviidae

Bradypterus graueri

Grauer's Rush Warbler

EN

AR

Sylviidae

Graueria vittata

Grauer's Warbler

 

AR

Sylviidae

Hemitesia neumanni

Short-tailed/Neumann's Warbler

 

AR

Sylviidae

Phylloscopus laetus

Red-faced Woodland Warbler

 

AR

Muscicapidae

Melaenornis ardesiacus

Yellow-eyed Black Flycatcher

 

AR

Platysteiridae

Batis diops

Rwenzori Batis

 

AR

Malaconotidae

Laniarius willardi

Willard’s sooty boubou

 

AR

Prionopidae

Prionops alberti

Yellow-crested Helmet Shrike

VU

AR

Nectariniidae

Cyanomitra alinae

Blue-headed Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Nectarinia purpureiventris

Purple-breasted Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris regia

Regal Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris rockefelleri

Rockefeller's Sunbird

VU

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris stuhlmanni

Rwenzori Double-collared Sunbird

 

AR

Ploceidae

Ploceus alienus

Strange Weaver

 

AR

Estrildidae

Cryptospiza jacksoni

Dusky Crimson-wing

 

AR

Estrildidae

Cryptospiza shelleyi

Shelley's Crimson-wing

VU

AR

Apodidae

Schoutedenapus schoutedeni

Schouteden's swift

VU

EZL

Pycnonotidae

Phyllastrephus lorenzi

Sassi's Olive Greenbul

NT

EZL

Turdidae

Zoothera oberlaenderi

Oberlander's/Forest Ground Thrush

NT

EZL

Monarchidae

Terpsiphone bedfordi

Bedford's Flycatcher

NT

EZL

Ploceidae

Ploceus aureonucha

Golden-naped weaver

EN

EZL

Ploceidae

Ploceus flavipes

Yellow-legged weaver

VU

EZL

 

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Reptiles

Nineteen reptile species have been classified as endemic to the Albertine Rift with a further three near-endemic. Seven of these are Chameleons and six Skinks. Few snakes are endemic to this region.

Family

Species

Endemic (END) or

Near Endemic (NE)

Chamaeleonidae

Kinyongia carpenteri

END

Chamaeleonidae

Kinyongia xenorhina

END

Chamaeleonidae

Kinyongia adolfifriderici

END

Chamaeleonidae

Kinyongia gyrolepis

END

Chamaeleonidae

Chamaeleo johnstoni

END

Chamaeleonidae

Chamaeleo rudis

END

Chamaeleonidae

Chamaeleo schoutedeni

END

Chamaeleonidae

Chamaeleo ituriensis

END

Colubridae

Lycodonomorphus bicolor

END

Colubridae

Philothamnus ruandae

END

Gekkonidae

Cnemaspis quattuorseriata

END

Lacertidae

Adolfus vauereselli

END

Scincidae

Leptosiaphos blochmanni

END

Scincidae

Leptosiaphos graueri

END

Scincidae

Leptosiaphos hackarsi

END

Scincidae

Leptosiaphos luberoensis

END

Scincidae

Leptosiaphos meleagris

END

Scincidae

Leptosiaphos rhodurus

END

Typhlopidae

Leptotyphlops latirostris

END

Viperidae

Atheris nitschei

END

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Amphibians are facing an unprecedented crisis at the moment around the World. Over one third of known species are classified as threatened with extinction by IUCN. This is partly due to habitat loss but also due to pollution of rivers and streams and also due to new diseases that have emerged. 

At the same time we do not know many of the species that occur in the World with new species being discovered at an increasing rate with new genetic techniques. In Central Africa it is clear that there are many newspecies to be discovered but at the same time there are very few herpetologists from Africa who are studying amphibians. The African Amphibian Working Group held its 16th meeting in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park  in 2014 to share experiences between herpetologists working in Africa but at the same time to train up a new cohort of African scientists who will work on this group of threatened animals.


A training program was held before the meeting and attended by 18 African scientists from Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda and included an overview of what is known about amphibians on this continent and training in how to study and collect specimens correctly, to preserve tissue for DNA analysis and how to study the emerging disease caused by Chytrid fungus which is responsible for the decline and extinction of many amphibian species. A short video about that training can be accessed here:

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

WCS has been partnering with the Michele Menegon at the Science Museum at Trento, Italy, Mathias Behangana at the Makerere University in Uganda, Eli Greenbaum at the University of Texas, El Paso and Simon Loader at the University of Basel in Switzerland to survey the amphibians of the Albertine Rift. We have focused support to amphibian surveys in several sites in Uganda, Rwanda and DR Congo, notably Misotshi-Kabogo, Itombwe, Kahuzi Biega NP, Nyungwe NP, Bwindi Impenetrable NP, Virunga NP and Kabwoya WR. These surveys have identified at least 10 new species for the World with more likely to be discovered in current surveys. These 10 species when described will increase the number of endemic species for the Albertine Rift by 25%.

Conserving the existing amphibians and these new species will be a challenge. Amphibians attract far less attention than large mammals and birds and consequently fundraising for their conservation is difficult. IUCN has given WCS a two year grant to work on the conservation of amphibians in the Itombwe and Misotschi-Kabogo massifs and to support the creation of two new protected areas at each of these sites. The aim is to ensure that the boundaries of these protected areas do conserve the 17 species of amphibians that are only found in these two sites in the World (with possibly more species to add as we analyse the surveys). Tracie Seimon at WCS's NY Health Centre is working on analysing the extent of infection by the Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in all specimens we collect to determine the importance of this disease and its impact on amphibians in the Albertine Rift. This fungus has been responsible for the decline of many amphibian populations around the World, although it originates from Africa and so may not be as dangerous to amphibians on this continent as a result of adaptation.

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Amphibians

At least 38 amphibians are endemic to the Albertine Rift. Many of these species have some form of IUCN classification as they are considered threatened or little is known about their distribution.

 

Family

Species

IUCN

AR endemic

Arthroleptidae

Arthroleptis vercammeni

DD

AR

Arthroleptidae

Cardioglossa cyaneospila

DD

AR

Hyperolidae

Chrysobatrachus cupreonitens

DD

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius diaphanus

DD

AR

Bufonidae

Laurentophryne parkeri

DD

AR

Arthroleptidae

Arthroleptis spinalis

DD

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius atrigularis

DD

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius nasicus

DD

AR

Ranidae

Amietia desaegeri

DD

AR

Arthroleptidae

Arthroleptis discodactylus

DD

AR

Caecilidae

Boulengerula fischeri

DD

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius pustulifer

DD

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius xenorhinus

DD

AR

Hyperolidae

Leptopelis fenestratus

DD

AR

Phrynobatrachidae

Phrynobatrachus dalcqi

DD

AR

Phrynobatrachidae

Phrynobatrachus sulfureogularis

DD

AR

Arthroleptidae

Arthroleptis hematogaster

DD

AR

Pipidae

Xenopus ruwenzoriensis

DD

AR

Phrynobatrachidae

Phrynobatrachus asper

DD

AR

Pipidae

Xenopus itombwensis

CR

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius leleupi

EN

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius leucotaenius

EN

AR

Hyperolidae

Callixalus pictus

VU

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius castaneus

VU

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius chrysogaster

VU

AR

Phrynobatrachidae

Phrynobatrachus acutirostris

VU

AR

Phrynobatrachidae

Phrynobatrachus bequaerti

VU

AR

Phrynobatrachidae

Phrynobatrachus versicolor

VU

AR

Kassinae

Afrixalus orophilus

VU

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius discodactylus

VU

AR

Hyperoliinae

Hyperolius frontalis

VU

AR

Arthroleptidae

Arthroleptis pyrrhoscelis

NT

AR

Pipidae

Xenopus vestitus

 

AR

Arthroleptidae

Arthroleptis mossoensis

 

AR

Phrynobatrachidae

Phrynobatrachus petropedetoides

 

AR

Ranidae

Rana ruwenzorica

 

AR

Pipidae

Xenopus lenduensis

 

AR

Pipidae

Xenopus wittei

 

AR

 

 


Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

The species of great apes around the World are all threatened with extinction. The Albertine Rift region contains more apes than any other ecoregion with two species and three subspecies of ape. For two of the apes, mountain and Grauer’s gorillas, the Albertine Rift contains their world range. WCS works to conserve each of these three apes in the Albertine Rift region using a variety of approaches which include support to habitat conservation, support to antipoaching patrols, surveys of populations, research on their conservation needs, development of species action plans, and support to minimizing conflicts between apes and local people.

The three apes we conserve in the Albertine Rift are:

  1. Mountain gorillaGorilla beringei beringei
  2. Grauer’s gorillaGorilla beringei graueri
  3. Eastern ChimpanzeePan troglodytes schwinfurthii 

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

The Albertine Rift is one of the most biodiverse places on Earth.  Since 2000 WCS has been compiling published species lists for various sites where surveys have been made since the 1930s and updating all of the names for changes in nomenclature which have taken place over time.  To date we have documented a total of 1,779 terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians) of which 140 are endemic to the Albertine Rift and 78 are classified as globally threatened on the IUCN redlist. 6,409 plant species have also been recorded of which 341 are endemic (although this list is still being improved and may well  increase in number) and 73 are threatened.

Taxon Species Endemic Threatened
Mammals 385 41 36
Birds 1,074 42 25
Reptiles 177 19 2
Amphibians 143 38 15
Plants 6,409 341 73


WCS has used the numbers of endemic and numbers of threatened species it has compiled to identify the priority sites for conservation. The results of this were published in the Albertine Rift Technical Reports Series (No. 3). Effectively the sites in the rift were ranked for the number of endemic mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and plants separately. Mean rankings were then calculated across all these taxa to provide an average ranking and these were then reduced to three categories of high, medium and low ranking sites. This process was repeated for threatened species.  The table below summarises the results. The columns rank the number of threatened species and the rows rank thenumber of endemic  species. Virunga, Kahuzi Biega, Kibale, Bwindi Impenetrable, and Nyungwe National Parks together with the Itombwe Massif and the proposed Ngamikka National Park in the Marungu-Kabogo  Landscape are the priority sites for conservation in the Albertine Rift.

Endemic species High Medium Low
Threatened species

High Virunga NP
Itombwe Massif
Kahuzi Biega NP
Kibale NP
Bwindi Impenetrable NP
Nyungwe NP
Ngamikka Forest/Kabogo
 
Rwenzori Mts NP
W. Lake Edward
Mahale Mts NP
Echuya FR
Lac Ruzizi NP
Medium Kasyoha-Kitomi FR
Queen Elizabeth NP
Semuliki NP

Budongo FR

Kalinzu-Maramagambo

Lendu plateau

Kibira NP

Mafuga FR
Bururi FR
Gombe Stream NP
Mbizi FR
Idjwi Island
Low Mweru-Wantipa NP
Murchison Falls NP
Sumbu NP
Bugoma FR
Semliki WR
Kagombe FR
Kyambura WR
Bugungu WR
Karuma WR
Kitechura FR
Matiri FR
Itwara FR
Ibambaro FR
Marungu Massif


Reports include surveys of:

  1. Virunga National Park, DRC
  2. Kahuzi Biega National Park, DRC
  3. Itombwe Massif, DRC
  4. Misotshi-Kabogo, DRC
  5. Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda
  6. Kibira National Park, Burundi
  7. Virunga Volcanoes, DRC, Rwanda and Uganda

However, it was clear that many sites had not been surveyed as well as others or had only been surveyed for certain taxa but not others. This led to a 10 year program to survey the biodiversity of most of the sites in the Albertine Rift. We have primarily focused on large mammals, birds and plants (excluding mosses, liverworts and lichens) but have collaborated with Julian Kerbis Peterhans at the Field Museum in Chicago who is an expert on the small mammals of this region and with Michele Menegon, of the Museo delle Scienze in Trentino, and Eli Greenbaum, at the University of Texas at El Paso, who are studying the reptiles and amphibians here.

We are in the process of using species distribution data we have compiled and collected in surveys we have made to create species distribution models for the endemic and threatened species in collaboration with other scientists. These will then be use in a Marxan analysis to assess the minimum number of sites within the protected areas which are critical for the conservation of all of the endemic and threatened species in the Albertine Rift. We believe this analysis will also identify potential sites outside existing protected areas that need to be conserved also.

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Birds

A total of 42 species of bird are endemic to the Albertine Rift. This list combines two of Birdlife International’s endemic bird areas (Albertine Rift and Eastern Zairean Lowlands) because there is overlap in the distribution of some of these species.  The newly described Willard’s Sooty Boubou has been added here because the only known specimens are from the Albertine Rift but more research is needed on this species.

Family

Species

Common name

IUCN

AR endemic

Phasianidae

Francolinus nobilis

Handsome Francolin

 

AR

Musophagidae

Tauraco johnstoni

Rwenzori Turaco

 

AR

Strigidae

Glaucidium albertinum

Albertine Owlet

VU

AR

Tytonidae

Phodilus prigoginei

Congo Bay Owl

EN

AR

Caprimulgidae

Caprimulgus prigoginei

Itombwe Nightjar

EN

AR

Caprimulgidae

Caprimulgus ruwenzorii

Rwenzori Nightjar

 

AR

Indicatoridae

Indicator pumilio

Dwarf Honeyguide

NT

AR

Eurylaimidae

Pseudocalyptomena graueri

African Green Broadbill

VU

AR

Paridae

Parus fasciiventer

Stripe-breasted Tit

 

AR

Timaliidae

Kupeornis rufocinctus

Red-collared Mountain Babbler

NT

AR

Timaliidae

Kupeornis chapini

Chapin's Mountain Babbler

NT

AR

Campephagidae

Coracina  graueri

Grauer's Cuckoo Shrike

NT

AR

Pycnonotidae

Chlorocichla prigoginei

Prigogine's greenbul

EN

AR

Turdidae

Alethe poliophrys

Red-throated Alethe

 

AR

Turdidae

Cossypha archeri

Archer's Ground Robin

 

AR

Turdidae

Zoothera tanganjicae

Kivu Ground Thrush

NT

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis argentea

Kungwe Apalis

EN

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis kaboboensis

Kabobo Apalis

DD

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis personata

Montane Masked Apalis

 

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis Ruwenzori

Collared Apalis

 

AR

Sylviidae

Bradypterus graueri

Grauer's Rush Warbler

EN

AR

Sylviidae

Graueria vittata

Grauer's Warbler

 

AR

Sylviidae

Hemitesia neumanni

Short-tailed/Neumann's Warbler

 

AR

Sylviidae

Phylloscopus laetus

Red-faced Woodland Warbler

 

AR

Muscicapidae

Melaenornis ardesiacus

Yellow-eyed Black Flycatcher

 

AR

Platysteiridae

Batis diops

Rwenzori Batis

 

AR

Malaconotidae

Laniarius willardi

Willard’s sooty boubou

 

AR

Prionopidae

Prionops alberti

Yellow-crested Helmet Shrike

VU

AR

Nectariniidae

Cyanomitra alinae

Blue-headed Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Nectarinia purpureiventris

Purple-breasted Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris regia

Regal Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris rockefelleri

Rockefeller's Sunbird

VU

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris stuhlmanni

Rwenzori Double-collared Sunbird

 

AR

Ploceidae

Ploceus alienus

Strange Weaver

 

AR

Estrildidae

Cryptospiza jacksoni

Dusky Crimson-wing

 

AR

Estrildidae

Cryptospiza shelleyi

Shelley's Crimson-wing

VU

AR

Apodidae

Schoutedenapus schoutedeni

Schouteden's swift

VU

EZL

Pycnonotidae

Phyllastrephus lorenzi

Sassi's Olive Greenbul

NT

EZL

Turdidae

Zoothera oberlaenderi

Oberlander's/Forest Ground Thrush

NT

EZL

Monarchidae

Terpsiphone bedfordi

Bedford's Flycatcher

NT

EZL

Ploceidae

Ploceus aureonucha

Golden-naped weaver

EN

EZL

Ploceidae

Ploceus flavipes

Yellow-legged weaver

VU

EZL

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Birds

A total of 42 species of bird are endemic to the Albertine Rift. This list combines two of Birdlife International’s endemic bird areas (Albertine Rift and Eastern Zairean Lowlands) because there is overlap in the distribution of some of these species.  The newly described Willard’s Sooty Boubou has been added here because the only known specimens are from the Albertine Rift but more research is needed on this species.

Family

Species

Common name

IUCN

AR endemic

Phasianidae

Francolinus nobilis

Handsome Francolin

 

AR

Musophagidae

Tauraco johnstoni

Rwenzori Turaco

 

AR

Strigidae

Glaucidium albertinum

Albertine Owlet

VU

AR

Tytonidae

Phodilus prigoginei

Congo Bay Owl

EN

AR

Caprimulgidae

Caprimulgus prigoginei

Itombwe Nightjar

EN

AR

Caprimulgidae

Caprimulgus ruwenzorii

Rwenzori Nightjar

 

AR

Indicatoridae

Indicator pumilio

Dwarf Honeyguide

NT

AR

Eurylaimidae

Pseudocalyptomena graueri

African Green Broadbill

VU

AR

Paridae

Parus fasciiventer

Stripe-breasted Tit

 

AR

Timaliidae

Kupeornis rufocinctus

Red-collared Mountain Babbler

NT

AR

Timaliidae

Kupeornis chapini

Chapin's Mountain Babbler

NT

AR

Campephagidae

Coracina  graueri

Grauer's Cuckoo Shrike

NT

AR

Pycnonotidae

Chlorocichla prigoginei

Prigogine's greenbul

EN

AR

Turdidae

Alethe poliophrys

Red-throated Alethe

 

AR

Turdidae

Cossypha archeri

Archer's Ground Robin

 

AR

Turdidae

Zoothera tanganjicae

Kivu Ground Thrush

NT

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis argentea

Kungwe Apalis

EN

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis kaboboensis

Kabobo Apalis

DD

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis personata

Montane Masked Apalis

 

AR

Sylviidae

Apalis Ruwenzori

Collared Apalis

 

AR

Sylviidae

Bradypterus graueri

Grauer's Rush Warbler

EN

AR

Sylviidae

Graueria vittata

Grauer's Warbler

 

AR

Sylviidae

Hemitesia neumanni

Short-tailed/Neumann's Warbler

 

AR

Sylviidae

Phylloscopus laetus

Red-faced Woodland Warbler

 

AR

Muscicapidae

Melaenornis ardesiacus

Yellow-eyed Black Flycatcher

 

AR

Platysteiridae

Batis diops

Rwenzori Batis

 

AR

Malaconotidae

Laniarius willardi

Willard’s sooty boubou

 

AR

Prionopidae

Prionops alberti

Yellow-crested Helmet Shrike

VU

AR

Nectariniidae

Cyanomitra alinae

Blue-headed Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Nectarinia purpureiventris

Purple-breasted Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris regia

Regal Sunbird

 

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris rockefelleri

Rockefeller's Sunbird

VU

AR

Nectariniidae

Cinnyris stuhlmanni

Rwenzori Double-collared Sunbird

 

AR

Ploceidae

Ploceus alienus

Strange Weaver

 

AR

Estrildidae

Cryptospiza jacksoni

Dusky Crimson-wing

 

AR

Estrildidae

Cryptospiza shelleyi

Shelley's Crimson-wing

VU

AR

Apodidae

Schoutedenapus schoutedeni

Schouteden's swift

VU

EZL

Pycnonotidae

Phyllastrephus lorenzi

Sassi's Olive Greenbul

NT

EZL

Turdidae

Zoothera oberlaenderi

Oberlander's/Forest Ground Thrush

NT

EZL

Monarchidae

Terpsiphone bedfordi

Bedford's Flycatcher

NT

EZL

Ploceidae

Ploceus aureonucha

Golden-naped weaver

EN

EZL

Ploceidae

Ploceus flavipes

Yellow-legged weaver

VU

EZL

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

Endemic butterflies of the Albertine Rift

 - an annotated checklist

 


Tim R.B. Davenport

 

Wildlife Conservation Society PO Box 1475, Mbeya Tanzania


                                                                                                                                     

June, 2002 (revd Feb 2003)


Contents

 

 

 

1. Introduction                                                                                                                        Page 3

 

2. Information sources and acknowledgements                                                                     Page 3

 

3. Taxonomy                                                                                                                          Page 3

 

4. Information provided                                                                                                         Page 3

 

5. Why butterflies?                                                                                                                 Page 4

 

6. The Albertine Rift                                                                                                              Page 4

 

7. Discussion                                                                                                                          Page 7

 

8. The Checklist                                                                                                                     Page 8

 

9. Key                                                                                                                                     Page 12

 

10. References                                                                                                                        Page 13

 

Appendix 1. Gazetteer of localities for DRC and Tanzania                                                  Page 14

 

 

 

 

Figures

 

 

 

Figure 1. Map of the Albertine Rift. All 123 species in the checklist are found                   Page 5 exclusively within the shaded area of the map.

 

Figure 2. Map of western Uganda, illustrating major forest localities                                  Page 5 mentioned in the checklist (coded) and other protected areas

uncoded). For key, see page 12

 

Figure 3. Map of the central section of the Albertine Rift, illustrating major                       Page 6 localities in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda

mentioned in the checklist (coded). For key, see page 12

 

Figure 4. Map of western Tanzania, illustrating major localities mentioned                        Page 6 in the checklist coded). For key, see page 12


 

1. Introduction

 

This checklist of the endemic butterflies (Rhopalocera) of the Albertine Rift was compiled as part of a strategic planning process for the Wildlife Conservation Societys Albertine Rift Programme. Some 117 butterfly species are listed, all of which are found exclusively within the Albertine Rift. This represents the first checklist to document specifically the endemic butterflies of these parts of Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia. Whilst no checklist of this nature can ever be considered comprehensive, it is hoped that the list is as complete and topical as current knowledge permits. Drawn from the available literature and personal observations, the document provides information on each endemic species including recorded localities, as well as broader details on the Albertine Rift itself.

 

2. Information sources and acknowledgements

 

Information has been drawn from a variety of sources including Carcasson (1961; 1975), D’Abrera (1980; 1997), Henning (1988), Kielland (1990), Larsen (1991), Ackery, et al. (1995), Davenport (1996), Howard & Davenport (1996), Congdon & Collins (1999), Congdon, Gardiner

& Bampton (2001), as well as numerous workers from earlier parts of the last century (e.g. Butler, Carpenter, Evans, Heron, Jackson, Joicey, Neave, Rebel, Rogers, Stempffer, Talbot, van Someren). Additional information came from collections held at Makerere University Zoology Museum, Kampala and the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi. Steve Collins (ABRI, Nairobi) provided considerable and invaluable information, and I am very grateful to Colin Congdon (Tanzania) and Alan Gardiner (Zambia) for very useful comments on an earlier draft.

 

3. Taxonomy

 

The higher classification of butterflies follows Kielland (1990) and Congdon and Collins (1999). Thus, four superfamilies (Papilionoidea, Lycaenoidea, Nymphaloidea and Hesperoidea) and nine families (Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Satyridae, Danaidae, Nymphalidae, Acraeidae and Hesperiidae) are recognised. Species are consistent, as far as possible, with Kielland (1990), Ackery et al., (1995) and Congdon and Collins (1999). The African distribution details and ecological affinities follow Davenport (1996).

 

4. Information provided

 

The list is arranged systematically to species level and alphabetically thereafter. As far as possible this conforms to the taxonomic sequences in the literature. The numbering system was designed for this checklist specifically. Species have not been provided with a common or colloquial name. The majority of taxa endemic to the Albertine Rift have never been endowed with one. The few that have are given in Davenport (1996).

 

Each species has been ascribed one of ten habitat types (although only five are associated with species in this list) based on the literature and personal observations in the field (Davenport,

1996; Howard and Davenport, 1996). These ecological affinities belong to three major categories,

namely forest-dependent species (F-species), characteristic of closed canopy forest habitats; forest non-dependent species (f-species), which may be recorded in closed-canopy forest but are not necessarily dependent upon it, and are more often encountered in a variety of forest edge, degraded forest and woodland habitats including Miombo (Brachystegia) in Tanzania; and non- forest (open habitat) species include those characteristic of a range of open savannah, grassland and arid habitats (O).


 

 

The species’ altitudinal range, if known or limited, has been given and expressed as metres above sea level. Each species has also been supplied with a list of countries in the Albertine Rift from which it has been recorded. Species that are endemic also to one of the six countries considered are marked accordingly. Finally, locality records are given for all butterflies where possible or known. In some instances, specific localities are not known and thus regions (such as north Kivu, western Uganda or Ufipa) are given.

 

There is confusion in the literature regarding distributions, particularly for the older records. Inevitably names and locations change with time and this is especially so in former colonies. For example in Uganda, Kibale has been referred to as Toro, Daro or Mpanga, the latter being problematical as there is also an Mpanga forest near Kampala. Bwindi Impenetrable has been termed as Kayonza or Kamengo (a name also given more usually to Semliki). As far as possible, the ‘old names’ have been changed to their currently used ones.

 

5.Why butterflies?

 

Being amongst the most colourful and conspicuous of invertebrate taxa, as well as diurnal in habit, more is known about the ecology and taxonomy of butterflies than any other major insect group. Whilst there remains a considerable amount to learn particularly about early stages, compared with most invertebrates much is understood about butterfly biology and ecology (Vane- Wright and Ackery, 1984). Often comprising distinct communities, suites of butterfly species

may be specific to geographical sub-regions and diverse ecological conditions (Howard and Davenport, 1996). These traits contribute to the value of butterflies as biological indicators and much research has been carried out over the past decade to support this (Kremen, 1992; 1994; Sparrow et al 1994; Beccaloni and Gaston, 1995; Howard et al., 1997; 1998).

 

The unequivocal environmental and dietary requirements of many species mean that their presence or absence can communicate much about a habitat and its health. Butterflies respond quickly to environmental changes and there is now considerable data on how particular species contend with alterations in land-use, and thus may play a valuable role in ecological monitoring (Daily and Ehrlich, 1995). The influence of seasonality on the presence or absence of adults of certain species, and on their morphology, as well as knowledge of species ecology must always be considered. However, the compilation of species lists may be used both qualitatively and

quantitatively, to comment on a habitat (its condition and vegetation) and to identify conservation and monitoring needs. Increasingly, therefore, butterflies are being used as tools in ecological

monitoring strategies (Pollard and Yates, 1993; Sparrow et al., 1994).

 

6. The Albertine Rift

 

There is no clear-cut definition of the Albertine Rift. For the purposes of this document, endemic butterflies of the Albertine Rift are those found only within the geographical boundaries illustrated in Figure 1. This area begins north of Lake Albert between Arua and Pakwach (West Nile, Uganda) and extends southward including Lendu Plateau, the lower reaches of the Kibali and Ituri rivers (Orientale, DRC), the forests of western Uganda and Kigezi (Uganda), north and south Kivu (DRC), western Rwanda and Burundi, Itombwe to Marungu in western Katanga (DRC), western Tanzania (Kigoma and Mpanda regions) and a small part of north west Zambia. Parts of the Ufipa Plateau, including Mbizi and other highland areas of Rukwa region (Tanzania) are also included. Figures 2-4 illustrate some of these areas in more detail.


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4. Map of western Tanzania, illustrating major localities mentioned in the checklist (coded). For key, see page 12

 


 

 

Figure 3. Map of the central section of the Albertine Rift, illustrating major localities in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda mentioned in the checklist (coded). For key, see page 12


 

7. Discussion

 

As far as can be ascertained there are 117 species of butterfly from 49 genera endemic to the Albertine Rift, amounting to approximately 3.2% of the total fauna for the continent including Madagascar. This figure is impressive, particularly when compared to the total of 78 species that are known to be endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains of southern Kenya and Tanzania (Congdon, Gardiner & Bampton, 2001). Of these 117 species, 21 are endemic to Tanzania, 23 to DRC, 21 to Uganda, 2 to Rwanda and 1 to Zambia. The remaining 52 species are distributed amongst the six nations with 16 species records for Burundi, 43 for DRC, 28 for Rwanda, 9 for Tanzania, 44 for Uganda and I for Zambia.

 

Endemic taxa are consistently distributed across the families with 3 Papilionidae, 8 Pieridae, 50

Lycaenidae, 8 Satyridae, 28 Nymphalidae, 8 Acraeidae and 12 Hesperiidae represented. Only

Riodinidae and Danaidae, the two smallest African families (represented by a total of 12 and 20 species respectively) are not present in this list. In terms of habitat preferences, 55 species are forest dependent (F), 1 forest lowland (FL) and 44 forest highland (FH), 11 species are forest non-dependent, 6 are from open habitats and 1 from open highland habitats. Thus 85.5% of the total are forest dependent, 9.4% forest non-dependent and 5.9% from open habitats.

 

This list is strictly limited to the area delineated in Figure 1. Had, for example, forests in the western shores of Lake Victoria (Sango Bay in Uganda and Minziro in Tanzania) been included, this list would approach 200 species. A considerable number of taxa are restricted to south west Uganda, eastern DRC and the lake Victoria shoreline. Indeed there are many similarities with the ecology of the lakeshore forests and the western highland forests (Howard & Davenport, 1996).

 

Similarly, the assumed boundary of the Albertine Rift cuts through eastern Ituri. If this were extended west to include more of this region, or north to include parts of southern Uele, a number of additional DRC endemics would be included. For example, Argiolaus bergeri, Stempffer 1953 (from Yindi and Kibali-Ituri), Hypokopelates tenuivittata, Stempffer 1951, (Epulu), Cupidesthes minor, Joicey & Talbot, 1921(Avakubi and Ituri river), Euriphene (Euriphene) rotundata,

Holland 1920 (Medje), Euphaedra intermedia, Rebel 1914 (North Kivu, Uele and Itoa River), Euphaedra sinuosa, Hecq 1974 (Beni and Uele) are all forest DRC endemics that have been ommitted.

 

Undoubtedly there are gaps in this list, particularly in respect to localities. Inevitably a list of this nature is a reflection of collectors and their preferences and research projects. There is, for example, much less published literature available about the butterfly fauna of Burundi. Moreover, many parts of DRC have presumably never been sampled. That notwithstanding a total of 117 species represents a very significant number of endemic taxa, further illustrating the considerable significance of the region for conservation.


 

8. The checklist

 

 

No Species                                 Author           Date Hab Altitude Country Localities

 

 

PAPILIONOIDEA

PAPILIONIDAE (SWALLOWTAILS)

Papilioninae (Swallowtails)

1

Papilio leucotaenia

Rothschild

1908

FH

2100-2300

B, DC, R, U

Bx Dx

R8

U3

2

Papilio ufipa

Carcasson

1961

FH

> 2000

T*

T19

 

 

3

Graphium gudenusi

Rebel

1911

FH

1900-2100

B, DC, R, U

Bx D12

Rx

U3

 

PIERIDAE (YELLOWS & WHITES)

Pierinae (Whites)


 

 

32

Lachnocnema disrupta

 

Talbot

 

1935

 

f

 

 

Za, U

 

U3 Z1

 

33

Lachnocnema inexpectata

Libert

1996

f

 

T*

T14

 

 

34

 

Theclinae (Strong Blues)

Spindasis dufranei

 

 

Bouyer

 

 

1991

 

 

F

 

 

 

DC*

 

 

D10 D13 D23

35

Spindasis tanganyikae

Kielland

1990

f

900-2000

T*

T10 T22 T31

36

Epamera mongiro

Stempffer

1969

F

600-800

U*

U11

37

Epamera pseudofrater

Stempffer

1962

FH

1400-2600

U*

U3

38

Epamera pseudopollux

Stempffer

1962

FH

1400-2600

T, U

T4 T5 T29 U3

39

Iolaphilus henryi

Stempffer

1961

F

1400-2600

U*

U3

40

Argiolaus kayonza

Stempffer & Bennett

1958

FH

1400-2600

U*

U3

41

Argiolaus montana

Kielland

1978

f

1450-2200

T*

T5 T17 T30 T32 T34

42

Argiolaus sp. nr. iturensis

Joicey & Talbot

1921

FH

> 2000

T*

T19

43

Hypolycaena jacksoni

Bethune-Baker

1906

FH

1400-2600

B, DC, R, U

Bx D11 D13 Rx U3

U4

U7

U9

44

Pilodeudorix ankoleensis

Stempffer

1953

F

1500

U*

U5

 

 

 

45

Pilodeudorix zelomina

Rebel

1914

FH

1200-2600

B, DC, R, U

Bx D14 Rx U3 U4

U8

 

 

46

Virachola edwardsi

Gabriel

1939

FH

1400-2800

DC, U

D38 U9

 

 

 

47

Virachola ufipa

Kielland

1978

f

1600-2200

T*

T1

 

 

 

48

Leptomyrina makala

Bethune-Baker

1908

F

 

DC, U

D13 U12

 

 

 

 

 

49

 

Polyommatinae (Weak Blues)

Anthene rufomarginata

 

 

Bethune-Baker

 

 

1910

 

 

F

 

 

 

DC*

 

 

D22

 

 

 

50

Anthene ruwenzoricus

Grünberg

1911

FH

1500-3000

DC, U

D38 U9

 

 

 

51

Uranothauma lunifer

Rebel

1914

FH

1400-2800

DC, R, T, U

D13 Rx T17 U3 U4

U8

 

 

52

Harpendyreus argenteostriata*

Stempffer

1961

FH

1800-2400

DC, R, U

D29 R6 U4

 

 

 

53

Harpendyreus kisaba

Joicey & Talbot

1921

FH

2100-2450

DC, R

D36 R3 R7

 

 

 

54

Harpendyreus reginaldi

Heron

1909

OH

 

DC, R, U

D13 D38 Rx U3 U9

 

 

 

55

Harpendyreus marlieri

Stempffer

1961

FH

2800

DC*

D29

 

 

 

56

Lepidochrysops carsoni

Butler

1901

O

 

Z*

Z2

 

 

 

57

Lepidochrysops chala

Kielland

1981

O

2000-2200

T*

T1 T19

 

 

 

58

Lepidochrysops mpanda

Tite

1961

O

1700-2000

T*

T24 T29

 

 

 

59

Thermoniphas albocaerulea

Stempffer

1956

FH

1400-2600

U*

U3

 

 

 

60

Thermoniphas caerula

Stempffer

1956

FH

1400-2600

U*

U3

 

 

 

61

Thermoniphas kigezi

Stempffer

1956

F

1400-2600

U*

U3 U4

 

 

 

 

NYMPHALOIDEA

SATYRIDAE (BROWNS & RINGLETS)


 

69  Bicyclus tanzanicus                              Condamin                     1983        f        1500-2300             T*            T T17  T28  T29

 

 

NYMPHALIDAE (BRUSHFOOTED BUTTERFLIES)

Charaxinae (Charaxes)

70  Charaxes alticola                           Grünberg                             1911      FH     1400-2700       DC, R, U     D13  R U U4

71  Charaxes gerdae                            Rydon                                 1989        f         900-1400              T*           T10  T27

72  Charaxes grahamei                        van Someren                       1969       F        800-1500              T*            T6    T T17  T20  T25

73  Charaxes mafuga                           van Someren                       1969      FH     1400-2600         B, R, U        B R U U8

74  Charaxes montis                            Jackson                               1956      FH     1400-2600          DC, U        D13  U U U9

75  Charaxes opinatus                         Heron                                  1909      FH     1400-2600     B, DC, R, U    Bx  D13  R U U9

76  Charaxes schiltzei                          Bouyer                                1991      FH     1400-2600         B, R, U        B R U3

77  Charaxes turlini                             Minig & Plantrou               1978      FH                                    R*            R R2

 

 

Nymphalinae (Nymphalids)

78  Cymothoe collarti                          Overlaet                              1942       F            1800              DC, R         D R6

79  Cymothoe howarthi                        Rydon                                 1981       F                                    DC*         D13

80  Cymothoe ochreata                        Grose-Smith                       1890       F                                  DC, U         D D7  D13 D18  U U2  U11

81  Pseudathyma debruynei                 Hecq                                   1990       F                                    DC*         D26

82  Kumothales inexpecta                    Overlaet                              1940       F          > 1400          DC, R, U     D15  R U U U8

83  Euriphene (Euriphene) alberici     Dufrane                               1945       F            1050                DC*         D28

84  Euriphene (Euriphene) excelsio Rebel                                   1911       F                              B, DC, R, U    Bx  D13  R U3

85  Euriphene (Euriphene) ituriensis   Jackson & Howarth            1957       F                                    DC*          D7  D33

86  Bebearia hargreavesi                     D'Abrera                             1980      FH         >1500               DC*         D25

87  Euphaedra barnsi                          Joicey & Talbot                  1922      FH     1300-1600          DC, R        D13  Rx

88  Euphaedra christyi                         Sharpe                                 1904       F                                     U*           U U U U7

89  Euphaedra confina                         Hecq                                   1992       F                                      T*           T26

90  Euphaedra cottoni                          Sharpe                                 1907       F        650-1000            DC*          D6

91  Euphaedra ducarmei                      Hecq                                   1977       F                                    DC*         D33

92  Euphaedra graueri                         Rothschild                           1918      FH                                  DC*         D33

93  Euphaedra margueriteae               Hecq                                   1978      FH     1400-2600       DC, R, U      D R U3

94  Euphaedra olivacea                       Grünberg                             1908       F                                     U*           U3

95  Euphaedra phosphor                      Joicey & Talbot                  1921       F        800-1200        B, DC, T       Bx  D40  T T10  T17

96  Euphaedra xerophila                     Hecq                                   1974       F                                    DC*         D41

97  Neptis lugubris                               Rebel                                   1914      FH     1400-2600          DC, U         D U3

 

 

ACRAEIDAE (ACRAEAS)

98  Acraea (Acraea) hamata                Joicey & Talbot                  1922      FH         > 2000        DC, R, T,  D13  R7    T U U U8

99  Acraea (Acraea) kia                       Pierre                                  1990       F            1000                 T*           T23

100 Acraea (Acraea) turlini                  Pierre                                  1979       F            2500                 R*            R6

101 Acraea (Actinote) amicitiae           Heron                                  1909      FH     1400-260 B, DC, R, T, U  B D Rx    T U U U8  U9

102 Acraea (Actinote) burgessi            Jackson                               1956      FH                                 DC, U        D33  U U U8   U9

103 Acraea (Actinote) grosvenori         Eltringham                          1912      FL         < 1600             DC, U        D33  U U U8

104 Acraea (Actinote) hecqui               Berger                                 1981       F                                    DC*         D32

105 Acraea (Actinote) pierre                Berger                                 1981       F                                    DC*         D30


 

HESPEROIDEA

HESPERIIDAE (SKIPPERS)

Pyrginae (Flats & Grizzled Skippers)

106 Celaenorrhinus hecqui

Berger

1976

F

 

DC*

D27

107 Celaenorrhinus kivuensis

Joicey & Talbot

1921

F

> 1400

DC, U

D35 U3

 


 

9. Key

 

 

Country                                   DRC                                          Rwanda  Burundi                             D1  Aruwimi river                     R1  Bugesera DC Democratic Rep. Cong D2  Boga                                   R2  Karama

 Rwanda                             D3  Bugoi                                  R3  Kisaba

 Tanzania                           D4  Bukavu-Shabundo              R4  Mt Karissimbi

 Uganda                             D5  Djuga                                  R5  Mt Sabinio

Za  Zambia                              D6  Irumu-Mawambwi-Beni    R6  Nyungwe

 National endemic              D7  Ituri                                     R7  Rugege

D8  Kahusha                             R8  Rugoge

Tanzania                          D9  Kamuhima                          R9  SW Rwanda

T1  Chala                                D10 Kibali-Ituri                        R10 Virunga

T2  Kahoko                            D11 Kisaba                                Rx  Unspecified locality

T3  Gombe                             D12 Kitembo

T4  Ipumba                             D13 Kivu                                           Zambia T5  Kampisa                           D14 Kivu Mts                            Z1  Kasama T6  Kasoge                             D15 Kivu-Rwenzori                   Z2  Fwambo

T7  Kasye                               D16 Kwidjwe Island                  Z3  NW Zambia

T8  Katuma river                    D17 Lake Kivu

T9  Kefu                                 D18 Lesse                                          Burundi

T10 Kigoma                            D19 Lowa valley                        Bx  Unspecified locality

T11 Kungwe                           D20 Lower Batahu river

T12 Lake Tanganyika shor D21 Lubero-Mulo                             Uganda T13 Lindi river                        D22 Makala                               U1  Budongo T14 Longerengene                  D23 Mambasa                            U2  Bugoma T15 Lubalizi                           D24 Maniema                            U3  Bwindi* T16 Luluvia river                    D25 Masisi                                 U4  Echuya

T17 Mahale                             D26 Mongbwalu                        U5  Kalinzu-Maramagambo

T18 Marungu                          D27 Mt Hoyot                            U6  Kasyoha-Kitomi

T19 Mbizi                               D28 Mt Kele                              U7  Kibale* T20 Mihumu                           D29 Mt Muhi                             U8  Mafuga

T21 Mishamu                          D30 Mukandwe                         U9  Mt Rwenzori*

T22 Mpanda                            D31 Mushari                             U10 Rwoho

T23 Mukuyu                           D32 Musisi-Kahusi                   U11 Semliki*

T24 Mweze                             D33 N. Kivu                             U12 Western Uganda

T25 Ntakatta                           D34 Nakele river

T26 Nyakanazi                        D35 Niragongo

T27 Sibwesa                            D36 NW Kivu                                   Habitat Types

T28 Sisaga                              D37 Nyamununye                        Forest dependent

T29 Sitebi Mt                          D38 Rwenzori                            FL  Lowland forest dependent T30 Tubira                              D39 South Kivu                         FH  Highland forest dependent T31 Ufipa                                D40 Lake Tanganyika shores      f    Forest non-dependent

T32 Usondo                            D41 Uvira                                    Open habitats

T33 Uvinza                              Dx  Unspecified locality           OH Highland open habitats

T34 Wanzizi

Tx  Unspecified locality


 

10. References

 

Ackery, P.A., Smith, C.R. and Vane-Wright, R.I. (1995). Carcasson's African Butterflies – An Annotated Catalogue of the Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region. The Natural History Museum, London, UK. pp 803.

D'Abrera, B. (1980). Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region. Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. D'Abrera, B. (1997). Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region. Revised Edition. Part 1. Lansdowne

Press, Melbourne.

Beccaloni, G.W. and Gaston, K.J. (1995). Predicting the species richness of neotropical forest butterflies: Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) as indicators. Biological

Conservation. 71, 77-86.

Carcasson, R.H. (1961). The Acraea butterflies of East Africa (Lepidoptera, Acraeidae). J.E.

Africa Nat. Hist. Soc. Special Supplement No 8.

Carcasson, R.H. (1975). The Swallowtail Butterflies of East Africa (Lepidoptera, Papillionidae).

E.W. Classey Ltd, Oxon, UK.

Congdon, T.C.E. and Collins, S.C. (1999). Kielland’s Butterflies of Tanzania. Supplement.

A.B.R.I. – Lambillionea. Nairobi. pp 143.

Congdon, T.C.E., Gardiner, A. and Bampton, I. (2001). Some endemic butterflies of Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi. (In press). pp 19.

Daily, G.C. and Ehrlich, P.R. (1995). Preservation of biodiversity in small rainforest patches:

rapid evaluations using butterfly trapping. Biodiversity and Conservation. 4, 35-55. Davenport, T.R.B. (1996). The Butterflies of Uganda - An Annotated Checklist. Uganda Forest

Department, Kampala, Uganda. pp 48.

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Appendix 1. Gazetteer of localities for Tanzania and DRC

 

DRC                                                                   Tanzania

Aruwimi river                   Eastern Ituri                      Chala                              Ufipa, Rukwa region Beni                                  North Kivu                       Gombe                            NP, Kigoma region Boga                                 North of Beni                   Ipumba                            Mahale NP

Bugoi forest                      East Kivu                          Kampisa                          Mahale NP Bukavu-Shabundo            East Kivu                          Kasoge                            Mahale NP Djuga                                Eastern Ituri                      Kasye                              Kigoma region Irumu-Mawambwi-Ben Eastern Ituri                      Katuma river                   Mpanda region Kahusha                            Kivu                                  Kefu forest                      Kigoma region Kamuhima                        Kivu                                  Kungwe                          Mahale NP Kibali                                River in Ituri                     Longerengene                 Mpanda region Kisaba                               Kivu                                  Lubalizi forest                Kigoma region Kitembo                            Kivu                                  Luluvia river                   Kigoma region Kwidjwe Island                Lake Kivu                         Marungu                         Mpanda region

Lesse                                 Kivu                                  Mbizi                              Ufipa, Rukwa region Lowa valley                      North Kivu                       Mihumu                          Kigoma region Lower Batahu River         Semliki Valley                  Mishamu                         Mpanda region Lubero-Mulo                    North Kivu                       Mukuyu                          Kigoma region Makala                              North of Lake Edward      Mweze                            Mahale NP

Mambasa                          North Kivu                       Ntakatta                          Mpanda region Maniema                           North Kivu                       Nyakanazi                       Biharamulo district Masisi                               North west of Lake Kivu  Sibwesa                          Mpanda region Mongbwalu                      East Ituri near Bunia        Sisaga                             Mahale NP

Mt Hoyot                          Ituri                                   Sitebi Mt                         Mpanda region Mt Kele                            Kivu                                  Tubira                             Kigoma region Mt Muhi                           Kivu                                  Ufipa                               Rukwa region

Mukandwe                        Ruwenzori                        Usondo                           55km south of Uvinza

Mushari                            Kivu                                  Uvinza                            Kigoma region Musisi-Kahusi                  South Kivu                       Wanzizi                           South east of Mahale Nakele river                      Masisi

Niragongo                         North East Kivu

Nyamununye                    Kivu

  Uvira                                   South Kivu

108 Metisella alticola

Aurivillius

1925

FH

1200-2600

DC, R, U

Dx R10 U3

U9

109 Astictopterus bruno

Evans

1937

O

 

T*

T13 T16 T18

 

110 Parosmodes onza

Evans

1956

F

 

U*

U3

 

111 Acleros neavei

Evans

1937

F

< 1400

DC, T, U

D7 D40 Tx

U2 U11

112 Andronymus bjornstadi

Congdon, et al.

1999

F

1100

T*

T30

 

113 Chondrolepis cynthia

Evans

1936

FH

1200-2400

DC, U

D3 U3

 

114 Gretna bugoma

Evans

1947

F

 

U*

U2

 

115 Platylesches fosta

Evans

1937

f

 

T, U

T12 U7

 

116 Platylesches larseni

Kielland

1992

f

1000

T*

T8

 

117 Zenonia crasta

Evans

1937

f

 

B, DC, R, U

Bx Dx Rx

U3 U4 U9

 

He

s

p

er

iinae

(

G

rass Skippers)

 

62

Gnophodes grogani

 

 

Elymniinae

Sharpe

1901

FH

1400-2600

DC, U

D31 U3 U4

U8

 

63

Bicyclus aurivillii

Butler

1896

FH

> 1500

B, DC, R, U

Bx D17 D38

R5

U4

U8

U9

U10

64

Bicyclus mahale

Congdon, et al.

1999

F

900

T*

T6

 

 

 

 

 

65

Bicyclus matuta

Karsch

1894

FH

1400-2600

B, DC, R, U

Bx D13 D16

Rx

U3

U8

U9

 

66

Bicyclus neustetteri

Rebel

1914

FH

1400-2600

DC, U

D13 D24 U3

 

 

 

 

 

67

Bicyclus persimilis

Joicey & Talbot

1921

FH

1400-2600

B, DC, R, U

Bx D38 Rx

U9

 

 

 

 

68

Bicyclus similis

Condamin

1963

FH

1600-2300

T*

T11

 

 

 

 

 

 

B

iinae

 

4

Mylothris alberici

Dufrane

1940

FH

> 1800

DC, R, U

D9

D25

Rx

U8

 

5

Mylothris croceus

Butler

1896

FH

> 1800

DC, R, U

D7

D13

Rx

U3

U7

U8

U9

6

Mylothris celisi

Berger

1981

F

 

DC*

D21

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Mylothris mafuga

Berger

1981

F

> 1600

DC, U

D4

U3

U8

 

 

 

 

8

Mylothris ochrea

Berger

1981

F

 

DC*

D8

D37

 

 

 

 

 

9

Mylothris polychroma

Berger

1981

F

 

B, DC, R

Bx

D37

Rx

 

 

 

 

10

Mylothris ruandana

Strand

1909

FH

> 1600

B, DC, R, U

Bx

D13

R9

U3

 

 

 

11

Mylothris schoutedeni

Berger

1952

F

 

DC*

D8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LYCAENOIDEA

LYCAENIDAE (BLUES, COPPERS, HAIRSTREAKS)

Lipteninae (Liptenids)

12

Alaena bjornstadi

Kielland

1973

O

1400-1700

T*

T32 T33

13

Alaena kiellandi

Carcasson

1965

O

1000-1700

T*

T10 T22 T27 T31

14

Telipna kayonza

Jackson

1969

F

1400-2400

U*

U3

15

Telipna sheffieldi

Bethune-Baker

1926

F

1300-2000

U*

U7

16

Telipna plagiata

Joicey & Talbot

1921

F

 

DC*

D20

17

Ornipholidotos kigoma

Kielland

1983

F

900-1300

T*

T9 T15 T21

18

Mimacraea paragora

Rebel

1911

F

 

DC*

D39

19

Toxochitona ankole

Stempffer

1967

F

1200-2000

U*

U5 U7

20

Toxochitona vansomereni

Stempffer

1954

FH

1600-2600

U*

U3

21

Liptena subsuffusa

Hawker-Smith

1933

FH

1500-2000

DC*

D19

22

Falcuna iturina

Stempffer & Bennett

1963

F

 

DC, U

D7 D33 U11

23

Falcuna semliki

Stempffer & Bennett

1963

F

 

DC*

D2

24

Micropentila bunyoro

Stempffer & Bennett

1965

F

 

DC, T, U

D33 Tx U1

25

Iridana bwamba

Stempffer

1964

F

600-800

U*

U11

26

Iridana obscura

Stempffer

1964

F

600-800

U*

U7 U11

27

Epitola bwamba

Jackson

1964

F

600-800

U*

U11

28

Epitola cyanea

Jackson

1964

F

600-800

U*

U11

29

Epitola mittoni

Jackson

1964

F

600-800

U*

U7 U11

30

Epitola pulverulenta

Dufrane

1953

F

 

DC*

D34

 

Miletinae (Harvesters & Woolly Legs)

31  Spalgis jacksoni                                           Stempffer                      1967        f          600-800             T, U          T7    T9  U11

 

 

Figure 1.

Map of the Albertine Rift. All 123 species in the checklist are found exclusively within the shaded area of the map.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2.

Map of western Uganda, illustrating major forest localities mentioned in the checklist (coded) and other protected areas uncoded) For key, see page 12

 

Conservation Challenges

Conservation Approach

Goals

Activities

Threats

Accomplishments

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